Skip to main content

Table 1 Study participant characteristics according to fasting glucose level in adults between 15 and 64 years of age in Nauru, 2004, by gender

From: Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Nauru

  Normal Prediabetes New diabetes Known diabetes p-value trend
MEN (n = 800)      
N (%) 602 (78.95) 51 (6.39) 79 (8.50) 68 (6.15)  
Age in years, mean ± SE 31.21 ± 0.48 32.92 ± 1.75 39.80 ± 1.58 46.60 ± 1.18 < 0.0001
Education in years, mean ± SE 9.65 ± 0.10 9.97 ± 0.31 10.01 ± 0.24 9.90 ± 0.32 0.15
Height in cm, mean ± SE 168.20 ± 0.27 168.52 ± 0.82 168.38 ± 0.61 168.30 ± 0.61 0.78
Weight in kg, mean ± SE 91.61 ± 1.00 93.71 ± 2.95 104.77 ± 2.77 90.92 ± 2.16 0.02
BMI in kg/m2, mean ± SE 32.26 ± 0.32 32.97 ± 0.99 36.77 ± 0.84 32.12 ± 0.76 0.01
Waist circumference in cm, mean ± SE 100.58 ± 1.62 101.93 ± 2.33 116.55 ± 7.23 102.68 ± 1.72 0.06
Systolic blood pressure in mmHg, mean ± SE 129.49 ± 0.65 131.82 ± 2.26 134.35 ± 1.83 140.02 ± 3.13 < 0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure in mmHg, mean ± SE 77.96 ± 0.50 80.68 ± 1.59 85.02 ± 1.27 85.26 ± 1.51 < 0.0001
Heart rate in beats/minute, mean ± SE 69.08 ± 4.41 72.42 ± 2.59 81.37 ± 12.85 73.25 ± 1.19 0.44
Fasting blood glucose in mmol/l, mean ± SE 4.24 ± 0.04 6.28 ± 0.02 8.67 ± 0.27 10.41 ± 0.37 < 0.0001
Total cholesterol in mmol/l, mean ± SE 4.28 ± 0.04 4.86 ± 0.16 5.24 ± 0.16 5.18 ± 0.14 < 0.0001
High risk drinker1, yes % 18.57 16.82 24.82 19.72 0.63
Current smoker1, yes % 46.56 52.58 45.44 45.77 0.88
Fruit in serves/day, mean ± SE 0.28 ± 0.04 0.41 ± 0.14 0.24 ± 0.04 0.22 ± 0.04 0.69
Vegetables in serves/day, mean ± SE 0.48 ± 0.05 0.45 ± 0.14 0.41 ± 0.06 0.36 ± 0.05 0.31
Total physical activity in minutes per day, mean ± SE 131.49 ± 6.72 120.20 ± 24.56 121.02 ± 12.92 94.78 ± 16.50 0.11
Work physical activity in minutes per day, mean ± SE 85.67 ± 5.67 98.62 ± 23.32 89.89 ± 11.82 72.84 ± 41.19 0.81
Commuting physical activity in minutes per day, mean ± SE 24.32 ± 1.94 8.17 ± 1.89 10.58 ± 2.52 15.46 ± 4.04 0.003
Leisure physical activity in minutes per day, mean ± SE 21.44 ± 2.23 12.73 ± 5.30 20.56 ± 6.76 6.40 ± 2.42 0.06
Sedentary activity in hours per day, mean ± SE 4.16 ± 0.13 4.26 ± 0.57 4.53 ± 0.44 3.97 ± 0.42 0.81
  Normal Prediabetes New diabetes Known diabetes p-value trend
WOMEN (n = 792)      
N (%) 570 (75.93) 51 (5.95) 74 (8.49) 97 (9.62)  
Age in years, mean ± SE 32.01 ± 0.48 37.75 ± 1.59 39.62 ± 1.58 46.26 ± 0.90 < 0.0001
Education in years, mean ± SE 9.96 ± 0.10 10.11 ± 0.42 10.20 ± 0.23 9.96 ± 0.20 0.63
Height in cm, mean ± SE 156.93 ± 0.22 156.31 ± 0.72 157.11 ± 0.60 156.56 ± 0.65 0.65
Weight in kg, mean ± SE 83.15 ± 0.92 82.02 ± 2.72 91.10 ± 2.46 83.73 ± 1.93 0.13
BMI in kg/m2, mean ± SE 33.68 ± 0.36 33.50 ± 1.03 36.86 ± 0.95 34.03 ± 0.69 0.09
Waist circumference in cm, mean ± SE 96.16 ± 0.70 96.89 ± 2.22 105.10 ± 1.94 100.77 ± 1.42 < 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure in mmHg, mean ± SE 118.91 ± 0.67 123.29 ± 3.19 125.34 ± 2.32 215.34 ± 2.24 0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure in mmHg, mean ± SE 76.55 ± 0.46 78.33 ± 1.80 79.33 ± 1.22 78.32 ± 1.15 0.03
Heart rate in beats/minute, mean ± SE 75.99 ± 1.92 71.64 ± 1.42 74.22 ± 1.95 76.06 ± 1.03 0.82
Fasting blood glucose in mmol/l, mean ± SE 4.28 ± 0.04 6.29 ± 0.02 8.71 ± 0.22 10.88 ± 0.27 < 0.0001
Total cholesterol in mmol/l, mean ± SE 4.54 ± 0.04 5.65 ± 0.23 5.15 ± 0.16 5.60 ± 0.14 < 0.0001
High risk drinker1, yes % 10.62 12.43 10.63 12.63 0.94
Current smoker1, yes % 56.37 60.54 51.81 59.37 0.77
Fruit in serves/day, mean ± SE 0.26 ± 0.03 0.14 ± 0.03 0.27 ± 0.05 0.28 ± 0.08 0.92
Vegetables in serves/day, mean ± SE 0.58 ± 0.05 0.52 ± 0.13 0.64 ± 0.13 0.61 ± 0.15 0.79
Total physical activity in minutes per day, mean ± SE 80.44 ± 5.17 85.76 ± 18.41 123.92 ± 18.03 79.15 ± 15.21 0.25
Work physical activity in minutes per day, mean ± SE 56.67 ± 4.86 67.47 ± 17.85 89.65 ± 15.42 57.55 ± 14.89 0.29
Commuting physical activity in minutes per day, mean ± SE 18.93 ± 1.54 11.35 ± 3.17 18.67 ± 4.05 16.63 ± 3.79 0.50
Leisure physical activity in minutes per day, mean ± SE 5.19 ± 1.12 4.97 ± 2.88 15.09 ± 7.65 4.13 ± 1.59 0.38
Sedentary activity in hours per day, mean ± SE 3.74 ± 0.13 3.14 ± 0.45 3.50 ± 0.41 3.60 ± 0.36 0.47
  1. 1High risk drinkers included respondents who reported consuming 3 to 9 drinks per day on 5 or more days a week in the past 12 months. Tobacco use was assessed according to participants' response to whether they currently smoke any tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars or pipes (yes or no). Physical activity was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPQAQ), which measures the frequency and duration of physical activity in work, travel and leisure domains [24, 25].
\