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Table 1 Percentages or Means and Standard Deviations of the Variables

From: A prospective cohort study of long-term cognitive changes in older Medicare beneficiaries

Independent Variables Percentage Mean Standard
Deviation
Baseline Cognition    
Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-7; 0-15 correct)   12.9 2.1
Immediate Word Recall (0-10 correct)   4.0 1.8
Delayed Word Recall (0-10 correct)   2.6 2.0
Exposure and Censoring    
Years Between Interviews   7.2 4.1
Entered Managed Care After Baseline 15.5   
Survived to the End of the Studya 35.1   
Died ≤ 1 Year After the Last Interviewa 18.9   
Demographic and Socioeconomic    
Age   77.7 5.3
Men 36.9   
African Americanb 8.7   
Hispanic Americanb 3.2   
Widowedc 39.4   
Divorced or Separatedc 5.0   
Never Marriedc 3.2   
Grade School Onlyd 21.6   
Attended Colleged 29.8   
Lowest Income Quintilee 13.1   
Highest Income Quintilee 26.5   
Disease History and Comorbidity    
Acute Myocardial Infarction 6.1   
Angina 7.9   
Arthritis 24.8   
Cancer 12.2   
Diabetes 10.9   
Hip Fracture 3.9   
Hypertension 44.2   
Lung Conditions 7.6   
Psychological Conditions 6.2   
Stroke 7.2   
Comorbidity (≥ 3 of the above diseases) 16.7   
Health Lifetyles    
Obesef 14.2   
Underweightf 2.5   
Engages in Vigorous Exercise (≥ 3 times per week) 33.0   
Current Cigarette Smokerg 9.4   
Former Cigarette Smokerg 42.6   
≥1 Alcoholic Drink Daily 11.6   
Functional Status    
Activities of Daily Living Limitations (0-5)   0.25 0.69
Instrumental ADL Limitations (0-5)   0.21 0.63
Mobility Limitations (0-4)   1.13 1.42
Good Vision 77.4   
Good Hearing 76.8   
Depressive Symptoms   1.5 1.9
Continuity of Care    
Every Day After Baselineh 9.2   
Never After Baselineh 26.7   
Post-Baseline Health Shocks    
Quartile 1 of Annual Primary Care Visitsi 25.0   
Quartile 2 of Annual Primary Care Visitsi 25.0   
Quartile 3 of Annual Primary Care Visitsi 25.0   
Quartile 1 of Annual Hospital Episodesj 27.9   
Quartile 2 of Annual Hospital Episodesj 24.7   
Quartile 3 of Annual Hospital Episodesj 22.5   
  1. aReference category is died > 1 year after the last follow-up interview.
  2. bReference category is White.
  3. cReference category is married.
  4. dReference category is high school.
  5. eReference category is the three middle quintiles.
  6. fReference category is normal or overweight.
  7. gReference category is never having smoked cigarettes.
  8. hReference category is continuity of care for 1-99%.
  9. iReference category is top quartile of primary care visits.
  10. jReference category is top quartile of annual hospital episodes.