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Table 2 Repeated measures regression of GHQ by housing variables in the Whitehall II study, adjusted for potential confounders

From: The effect of housing on the mental health of older people: the impact of lifetime housing history in Whitehall II

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Predicted GHQ 54.45** 53.92** 56.36**
Age (years) -0.12** -0.13** -0.18**
Housing tenure    
Owner-occupier ref. ref. ref.
Rented housing 0.71** 0.25 -0.10
Housing tenure*age 0.09** 0.06* 0.02
Predicted GHQ 54.53** 53.92** 56.36**
Age (years) -0.12** -0.13** -0.18**
Difficulty paying bills    
Slight to no problems ref. ref. ref.
Some to great problems 4.07** 3.54** 3.47**
Bill difficulty*age 0.12** 0.12** 0.09**
Predicted GHQ 54.45** 53.92** 56.36**
Age (years) -0.11** -0.13** -0.18**
Problems with house    
Slight to no problems ref. ref. ref.
Some to great problems 3.31** 2.90** 2.98**
House problems*age 0.04** 0.04** 0.04*
  1. Model 1: Multiple regression model with GHQ (repeated measures) as outcome and age, gender, period, housing variables (separately) and interaction of each housing variable (separately) with age as explanatory variables; random effect of age specified.
  2. Model 2: includes Model 1 and all housing variables together and their interactions with age
  3. Model 3: includes Model 2 and grade and retired status and their interactions with age
  4. * p < 0.05
  5. ** p < 0.01