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Table 5 Socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of khat use within the last 12 months among undergraduate medical students, June 2009

From: Substance use and its predictors among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia

Factors Khat use within
the last 12 months
Adjusted* OR
(95% CI)
  No, n (%) Yes, n (%)  
Sex    
   Female 193 (98.5) 3 (1.5) 1.00 (Reference)
   Male 386 (90.6) 40 (9.4) 3.28 (0.80, 13.54)
Age in years    
   15-19 213 (94.7) 12 (5.3) 1.00 (Reference)
   20 or more 366 (92.2) 31 (7.8) 0.64 (0.18, 2.30)
Religion    
   Other Christian 127 (96.2) 5 (3.8) 1.00 (Reference)
   Orthodox Christian 366 (94.1) 23 (5.9) 0.62 (0.15, 2.61)
   Muslim 74 (86.1) 12 (14.0) 8.18 (1.55, 43.25)
   Other 12 (80.0) 3 (20.00) 1.42 (0.13, 13.82)
Main source of family's income    
   Government employee 172 (90.5) 18 (9.5) 1.00 (Reference)
   Business 149 (92.0) 13 (8.0) 0.27 (0.08, 0.86)
   Agriculture-based 128 (95.5) 6 (4.5) 0.77 (0.09, 6.50)
   Other 130 (95.6) 6 (4.4) 0.51 (0.14, 1.87)
Medical education status    
   Pre-clinical 426 (95.3) 21 (4.7) 1.00 (Reference)
   Clinical 153 (87.4) 22 (12.6) 2.04 (0.61, 6.78)
Original background    
   Rural 116 (93.6) 8 (6.5) 1.00 (Reference)
   Urban 463 (93.0) 35 (7.0) 0.77 (0.11, 5.29)
Friend currently uses khat    
   No 436 (96.5) 16 (3.5) 1.00 (Reference)
   Yes 143 (84.1) 27 (15.9) 8.08 (2.84, 22.98)
Father currently chews khat    
   No 534 (93.2) 39 (6.8) 1.00 (Reference)
   Yes 45 (91.8) 4 (8.2) 1.75 (0.44, 7.03)
Mother currently chews khat    
   No 560 (93.1) 42 (6.9) 1.00 (Reference)
   Yes 19 (95.0) 1 (5.0) 1.32 (0.12, 14.74)
Consumed alcohol within the last 12 months    
   No 477 (97.9) 10 (2.1) 1.00 (Reference)
   Yes 102 (75.6) 33 (24.4) 16.99 (4.61, 62.64)
Ever smoked cigarette    
   No 551 (97.0) 17 (3.0) 1.00 (Reference)
   yes 28 (51.9) 26 (48.2) 7.63 (2.81, 20.71)
Total, N (%) 579 (93.1) 43 (6.9)  
  1. *Adjusted for sex, age, religion (4 levels), income (4 levels), education, background, khat intake of friends and parents, alcohol and cigarette intake.