Skip to main content

Table 4 Measurement items of each specific correlates per EBRB of the Parent Questionnaire

From: EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

  Description Soft drink Fruit juice Breakfast Dietary behaviour general Physical activity/Sports TV viewing
Family environment       
Social environment       
Parenting practices1 Assess upbringing strategies and rules the parent apply with regard to EBRB performed by the child 1. I negotiate with my child how much soft drinks (s)he is allowed to drink
2. If I prohibit my child from drinking soft drinks, I find it difficult to stick to my rule(s), if (s)he starts negotiating
3. I give soft drinks to my child as a reward or to comfort him/her
4. How often do you tell your child that soft drinks are not good for him/her
5. How often do you tell your child that soft drinks can make him/her fat
6. How often do you tell your child that soft drinks are bad for his/her teeth
7. I pay attention to the amount of soft drinks that my child drinks
8. My child is allowed to take soft drinks, whenever (s)he wants
9. If I would like to drink soft drinks, I would restrain myself because of the presence of my child
10. If my child asks for soft drinks, I will give it to him/her
1 I negotiate with my child how much fruit juices (s)he is allowed to drink
2. If I prohibit my child from drinking fruit juices, I find it difficult to stick to my rule(s) if (s)he starts negotiating.
3. I give fruit juices to my child as a reward or to comfort him/her.
4. How often do you tell you child that fruit juices are good for him/her?
5. How often do you tell your child that fruit juices can make him/her fat?
6. How often do you tell your child that fruit juices are bad for his/her teeth?
7. I pay attention to the amount of fruit juices that my child drinks.
8. My child is allowed to take fruit juices whenever (s)he wants.
9. If I would like to drink fruit juices, I would restrain myself because of the presence of my child.
10. If my child asks for fruit juices, I will give it to him/her.
1. I negotiate with my child on how much breakfast products (s)he has to eat and/or drink.
2. If I prohibit my child from skipping breakfast, I find it difficult to stick to my rule(s) if (s)he starts negotiating.
3. I praise my child if (s)he eats breakfast.
4. How often do you tell your child that eating breakfast is good for you
5. I pay attention what kind of products my child is eating for breakfast.
6. My child is allowed to skip breakfast.
7. I encourage my child to have breakfast.
What do you consider to be the three most important characteristics of your child's meal during school hours 1. I negotiate with my child on how much physical activity/sports (s)he has to do
2. If I try to prohibit my child from skipping a physical activity/sport session, I find it difficult to stick to my rule(s) if (s)he starts negotiating
3. I praise my child if (s)he takes part in physical activity/sports.
4. I punish my child by not allowing him/her to take part in his/her physical activity sessions/sports
5. How often do you tell your child that physical activity/sports are good for him/her?
6. I pay attention that my child does enough physical activity/sports
7. My child is allowed to skip physical activity/sport sessions whenever (s)he wants
8. I set a time limit on how much time of physical activity/sports my child can do in order to devote more time to his/her homework or other important things.
9. I do not allow my child to take part in physical activity/sports in his/her free time so that (s)he can concentrate on his/her studies.
10. I pay for my child to take part in physical activity/sports.
11. I bring my child to physical activity/sport sessions.
12. I encourage my child to take part in physical activity/sports
1. I negotiate with my child how much TV/video/DVD (s)he is allowed to watch. 2. If I prohibit my child from watching TV/video/DVD, I find it difficult to stick to my rule(s) if (s)he starts negotiating. 3. I allow my child to watch TV/video/DVD as a reward or to comfort him/her. 4. How often do you tell your child that watching TV/video/DVD is not good for him/her? 5. How often do you tell your child that watching TV/video/DVD can make him/her fat? 6. How often do you tell your child that watching TV/video/DVD is bad for his/her eye sight? 7. I pay attention to the amount of time my child watches TV/video/DVD. 8. My child is allowed to watch TV, whenever (s)he wants) 9. If I would like to watch TV/video/DVD, I would restrain myself because of the presence of my child. 10. If my child asks if (s)he is allowed to watch TV/video/DVD, I will allow it.
Automaticity2 Assess the extent to which the behaviour is performed automatically Drinking soft drinks is something that I do without even really thinking about it Drinking fruit juices is something I do without even really thinking about Eating breakfast is something I do without even really thinking about   Physical activities/sport activities is something that I do without really thinking about Watching television is something I do without even really thinking about
TV watching while having meal1      In general, how often do you watch television during the following meals?   
Performing the EBRB together1 Frequency score of how often parent performs the EBRB together with the child How often do you or your spouse drink soft drinks together with your child? How often do you and/or your spouse/partner drink fruit juices together with your child? How often do you and/or your spouse/partner have breakfast together with your child? 1. How often do you and/or your spouse/partner have lunch together with your child?
2. How often do you and/or your spouse/partner have dinner together with your child?
How often do you and/or your spouse/partner participate in physical activity/sports together with your child (e.g. play games outside, ride bikes, walk, or play sports together)? How often do you (one parent/spouse/partner or both) watch television together with your child?
Nagging behaviour of child1 Assess how the child behaves despite prohibition of the behaviour by the parent If I prohibit my child from drinking soft drinks (s)he tries to drink it anyway. If I prohibit my child from drinking fruit juices (s)he tries to drink it anyway. If I prohibit my child from skipping breakfast, (s)he tries to skip it anyway.   If I try to prohibit my child from not taking part in a physical activity/sport session, (s)he will try to skip it anyway. If I prohibit my child from watching TV/video/DVD, (s)he tries to watch anyway.
Physical environment       
Home availability1 Assess whether certain food products or equipment are available for the child. There are soft drinks available at home for my child. There are fruit juices available at home for my child. There are breakfast products (e.g. milk, cereal, bread) available at home for my child.    TV/video/DVD is available in my child's room.
Economic environment       
Influence pricing on child's behaviour3 Parental believe of whether child changes buying habits if prices change If the price of soft drinks were double, my child would drink less soft drinks.      
Influence pricing own behaviour3 Influence of prices on performing own behaviour.     I don't give my child some foods because they cost too much. I let my child participate in activity/sports less than I would like, because it is too expensive.  
Price consciousness child3 Assess whether the parent would consider his/her child as being price conscious regarding food products     I would consider my child as being price conscious regarding food, snacks and beverages.   
Pocket money for food3 How much pocket money the parent weekly gave to the child to buy food and drinks     On average how much money do you give to your child to buy food and drinks per week? Please do not include money you save or spend on clothes for your child   
  1. 1. Item derived from the ProChildren study [18]; 2 Item derived from Habit Strength Index [27], 3Items derived from Vogt-Nielsen et al. 2010 [22]