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Table 3 Association of anxiety and depression1 at 11-year follow-up (HUNT 2) with change in blood pressure from 11-year to 22-year follow-up (HUNT 3)

From: Anxiety and depression lowers blood pressure: 22-year follow-up of the population based HUNT study, Norway

  Adjusted for age, sex, educational level, and BP2at HUNT 2 Additionally adjusted for depression or anxiety, respectively
  B P R 2 B P R 2
Systolic blood pressure  
Anxiety, per SD increase -0.41 0.001 0.26 -0.23 0.145 0.26
Anxiety, case level3 -0.70 0.049 0.26 -0.54 0.159 0.26
Depression, per SD increase -0.46 < 0.001 0.26 -0.31 0.045 0.26
Depression, case level3 -0.74 0.078 0.26 0.48 0.294 0.26
Diastolic blood pressure  
Anxiety, per SD increase -0.21 0.004 0.34 -0.15 0.102 0.34
Anxiety, case level3 -0.40 0.051 0.34 -0.31 0.161 0.34
Depression, per SD increase -0.20 0.006 0.34 -0.11 0.223 0.34
Depression, case level3 -0.42 0.085 0.34 -0.27 0.303 0.34
  1. BP, blood pressure; SD, standard deviation; B, mm Hg change in BP during follow-up from linear regression analyses.
  2. 1Measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
  3. 2Systolic or diastolic.
  4. 3Case level = score ≥ 8 on HADS-A or HADS-D, respectively.