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Table 4 Person years, number of deaths, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause, CVD, IHD and stroke mortality in women stratified by educational groups*, Mumbai Cohort Study, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

From: Illiteracy, low educational status, and cardiovascular mortality in India

Women Illiterate Primary school Middle school and above
    Middle school Secondary school College Sub total
Person years 147,971 116,063 46,739 14,145 5320 66,204
All-deaths (n) 2417 762 160 54 19 233
Death rates per 100000 2 1444 949 896 981 962 918
HR1
95% CI
1.0 0.41
(0.38-0.44)
0.21
(0.18-0.25)
0.24
(0.18-0.31)
0.22
(0.14-0.35)
0.22
(0.19-0.25)
HR2
95% CI
1.0 0.68
(0.63-0.74)
0.61
(0.52-0.72)
0.64
(0.49-0.84)
0.57
(0.36-0.90)
0.61
(0.53-0.71)
HR3
95% CI
1.0 0.72
(0.66-0.79)
0.66
(0.56-0.78)
0.72
(0.55-0.95)
0.66
(0.42-1.04)
0.67
(0.58-0.78)
HR4
95% CI
1.0 0.78
(0.71-0.85)
0.70
(0.59-0.82)
0.77
(0.58-1.02)
0.70
(0.44-1.10)
0.71
(0.62-0.82)
CVD 5 deaths (n) 721 234 39 24 7 70
Death rates per 100000 2 429 301 267 426 317 306
HR1
95% CI
1.0 0.41
(0.35-0.47)
0.17
(0.12-0.23)
0.34
(0.23-0.51)
0.26
(0.13-0.56)
0.21
(0.16-0.27)
HR2
95% CI
1.0 0.69
(0.60-0.80)
0.55
(0.40-0.76)
1.04
(0.69-1.57)
0.74
(0.35-1.56)
0.68
(0.53-0.87)
HR3
95% CI
1.0 0.73
(0.62-0.85)
0.59
(0.42-0.82)
1.17
(0.77-1.77)
0.84
(0.40-1.79)
0.73
(0.57-0.95)
HR4
95% CI
1.0 0.75
(0.64-0.88)
0.59
(0.42-0.82)
1.17
(0.77-1.79)
0.79
(0.37-1.69)
0.73
(0.56-0.94)
IHD 6 deaths (n) 303 106 18 12 3 33
Death rates per 100000 2 180 133 131 227 96 142
HR1
95% CI
1.0 0.44
(0.35-0.54)
0.18
(0.11-0.29)
0.40
(0.23-0.71)
0.27
(0.09-0.84)
0.24
(0.16-0.34)
HR2
95% CI
1.0 0.73
(0.59-0.92)
0.59
(0.37-0.96)
1.20
(0.67-2.14)
0.74
(0.24-2.31)
0.74
(0.52-1.07)
HR3
95% CI
1.0 0.78
(0.62-0.99)
0.65
(0.40-1.05)
1.39
(0.76-2.53)
0.87
(0.28-2.76)
0.82
(0.56-1.20)
HR4
95% CI
1.0 0.78
(0.62-0.99)
0.61
(0.37-1.00)
1.36
(0.74-2.48)
0.77
(0.24-2.44)
0.78
(0.53-1.14)
Stroke 7 deaths (n) 145 51 9 4 1 14
Death rates per 100000 2 87 67 58 47 50 54
HR1
95% CI
1.0 0.43
(0.32-0.60)
0.19
(0.10-0.37)
0.28
(0.10-0.75)
0.19
(0.03-1.33)
0.21
(0.12-0.36)
HR2
95% CI
1.0 0.72
(0.52-1.00)
0.60
(0.30-1.19)
0.85
(0.31-2.29)
0.51
(0.07-3.68)
0.65
(0.37-1.13)
HR3
95% CI
1.0 0.76
(0.54-1.06)
0.64
(0.32-1.27)
0.94
(0.34-2.59)
0.58
(0.08-4.17)
0.69
(0.39-1.24)
HR4
95% CI
1.0 0.78
(0.55-1.10)
0.64
(0.32-1.29)
0.95
(0.34-2.63)
0.57
(0.08-4.17)
0.70
(0.39-1.25)
  1. *Illiterate, Primary school (≤ 5 years of formal education), Middle school (6-8 years), Secondary school (9-10 years) and College (> 10 years)
  2. 1 crude hazard ratios (HRs), 2 adjusted for age, 3 adjusted for age and tobacco use, 4 adjusted for age, tobacco use, BMI, religion and mother tongue, 5 all circulatory system related deaths (ICD-10 codes I00-99), 6 Ischemic Heart Disease deaths (I20-25), 7 cerebrovascular deaths (I60-69)