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Table 3 Person years, number of deaths, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause, CVD, IHD and stroke mortality in men stratified by educational groups*, Mumbai Cohort Study, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

From: Illiteracy, low educational status, and cardiovascular mortality in India

Men Illiterate Primary school Middle school Secondary school College
Person years 69,064 165,757 135,193 44,003 29,876
All-deaths (n) 1904 4507 2197 597 384
Death rates per 100000 2 2154 2149 1793 1543 1187
HR1
95% CI
1.0 0.98
(0.93-1.03)
0.58
(0.55-0.62)
0.48
(0.44-0.53)
0.46
(0.41-0.51)
HR2
95% CI
1.0 1.00
(0.95-1.06)
0.84
(0.79-0.89)
0.71
(0.65-0.78)
0.55
(0.50-0.62)
HR3
95% CI
1.0 1.02
(0.97-1.08)
0.89
(0.83-0.94)
0.75
(0.68-0.82)
0.60
(0.54-0.67)
HR4
95% CI
1.0 0.98
(0.92-1.03)
0.87
(0.82-0.93)
0.74
(0.67-0.82)
0.61
(0.55-0.69)
CVD 5 deaths (n) 448 1465 737 187 146
Death rates per 100000 2 471 654 618 518 450
HR1
95% CI
1.0 1.33
(1.20-1.48)
0.80
(0.71-0.90)
0.62
(0.52-0.73)
0.71
(0.59-0.85)
HR2
95% CI
1.0 1.36
(1.22-1.51)
1.27
(1.13-1.43)
1.01
(0.85-1.19)
0.88
(0.73-1.06)
HR3
95% CI
1.0 1.37
(1.23-1.52)
1.30
(1.16-1.47)
1.02
(0.86-1.22)
0.90
(0.74-1.09)
HR4
95% CI
1.0 1.20
(1.07-1.33)
1.13
(1.00-1.28)
0.88
(0.73-1.04)
0.78
(0.64-0.94)
IHD 6 deaths (n) 223 835 481 125 109
Death rates per 100000 2 234 371 401 349 338
HR1
95% CI
1.0 1.53
(1.32-1.78)
1.05
(0.89-1.23)
0.83
(0.66-1.03)
1.06
(0.84-1.33)
HR2
95% CI
1.0 1.57
(1.36-1.82)
1.67
(1.42-1.96)
1.35
(1.08-1.68)
1.31
(1.04-1.64)
HR3
95% CI
1.0 1.58
(1.37-1.84)
1.71
(1.45-2.00)
1.36
(1.09-1.70)
1.32
(1.04-1.66)
HR4
95% CI
1.0 1.35
(1.16-1.57)
1.44
(1.22-1.70)
1.16
(0.93-1.46)
1.11
(0.87-1.40)
Stroke 7 deaths (n) 115 303 126 22 10
Death rates per 100000 2 124 135 107 59 31
HR1
95% CI
1.0 1.08
(0.87-1.34)
0.53
(0.41-0.68)
0.28
(0.18-0.45)
0.19
(0.10-0.36)
HR2
95% CI
1.0 1.12
(0.90-1.39)
0.86
(0.67-1.11)
0.47
(0.30-0.74)
0.24
(0.12-0.45)
HR3
95% CI
1.0 1.13
(0.91-1.40)
0.90
(0.70-1.16)
0.50
(0.32-0.79)
0.27
(0.14-0.51)
HR4
95% CI
1.0 1.01
(0.81-1.25)
0.80
(0.62-1.04)
0.41
(0.26-0.66)
0.23
(0.12-0.44)
  1. *Illiterate, Primary school (≤ 5 years of formal education), Middle school (6-8 years), Secondary school (9-10 years) and College (> 10 years)
  2. 1 crude hazard ratios (HRs), 2 adjusted for age, 3 adjusted for age and tobacco use, 4 adjusted for age, tobacco use, BMI, religion and mother tongue, 5 all circulatory system related deaths (ICD-10 codes I00-99), 6 Ischemic Heart Disease deaths (I20-25), 7 cerebrovascular deaths (I60-69).