Skip to main content

Table 2 Studies assessing effect of antioxidant supplementation on lung function associated with ambient air pollutant exposures in intact humans

From: Modification by antioxidant supplementation of changes in human lung function associated with air pollutant exposure: A systematic review

First author, Year, Country Study design Conditions* Pollutant exposure duration Anti-oxidant (dose) and duration Population
(N)
Age range Inclusion/Exclusion criteria Outcome
Bucca, 1992, Italy Randomized (crossover); double-blinded a) Placebo; 24-Hour average [pollutant]: SO2 142-159 (mcg/mol), total particulate 322-453 (mcg/mol), CO2 1.5-4.8 (ppm), NO2 139-178 (mcg/mol) 2 hours in 'acute' protocol; 4 days in 'chronic' protocol Vitamin C (2 gm) once in 'acute' protocol and vitamin C (2 gm/day) for 4 days in 'chronic' protocol Policemen
(20)
24-37 Normal lung function tests, no history of asthma, respiratory tract infection in the six weeks preceding the study. Pollutant-induced decrement in PC25MEF50 (airway reactivity) attenuated by vitamin C. in 'acute' protocol; Pollutant-induced decrement in PC25MEF50 attenuated by vitamin C in 'chronic' protocol (p < 0.001). Peak expiratory flow decrements also significantly attenuated by vitamin C (but p-value not reported).
   b)Anti-oxidant; 24-Hour average [pollutant]: SO2 142-159 (mcg/mol), Total particulate 322-453 (mcg/mol), CO2 1.5-4.8 (ppm), NO2 139-178 (mcg/mol)       
Grievnik, 1998, The Netherlands Randomized a) Placebo; 8-Hour average [ozone]: 101 (μg/m3) 70 days Vitamin E (75 mg/day), Vitamin C (650 mg/day) and β-carotene (15 mg/day) for 3 months Amateur cyclists
(26)
16-41 Subjects with a range in exposure to ozone of less than 50 (μg/m3) were excluded for analysis. Ozone-associated decrements in FVC, FEV1, and peak expiratory flow (PEF), were attenuated by vitamin E, vitamin C and β-carotene. No p-value provided.
   b)Anti-oxidant; 8-Hour average [ozone]: 101 (μg/m3)       
Romieu, 1998, Mexico Randomized (crossover); double-blinded a) Placebo; hourly average [pollutant]: ozone 67.3 (ppb), NO2 52.3 (ppb), PM10 76.5 (μg/m3) with placebo 6 months Vitamin E (75 mg/day), Vitamin C (650 mg/day) and β-carotene (15 mg/day) for 130 days over 2 phases Male street workers
(47)
18-58 Working outdoors in the central area of Mexico City, No more than 5 cigarettes/day. Ozone-associated decrease in FEV1, FVC and FEF25-75 attenuated by Vitamin C, Vitamin E and βeta-carotene. (first phase of study p values for all 3 parameters: p < 0.01; second phase of study p values for FVC and FEF25-75 p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 for FEV1).
   b)Anti-oxidant; hourly average
[pollutant]: ozone 67.3 (ppb),
NO2 52.3 (ppb), PM10 76.5(μg/m3)
      
Grievnik, 1999, The Netherlands Randomized (non-cross over); double-blinded a)Placebo; 8-Hour average [ozone]: 84-88 (μg/m3) 15 weeks Vitamin E (100 mg/daily), Vitamin C (500 mg/daily) for 15 weeks Amateur and recreational cyclists
(38)
17-58 Non smokers. Ozone-associated decrease in FEV1, FVC attenuated by Vitamin C, and Vitamin E (p < 0.05).
   b)Anti-oxidant; 8-Hour average [ozone]: 84-88 (μg/m3)       
Romieu, 2002, Mexico Randomized; double-blinded a) Placebo; 24-Hour average [pollutant]: SO2 33 (ppb), PM10 56.68 (μg/m3), NO2 30 (μg/m3) ozone 32 (ppb) 12 weeks Vitamin E (50 mg/day), Vitamin C (250 mg/day) for 12 weeks Asthmatic children
(158)
6-17 Not specified. Ozone-associated decrements in FEF25-75 and PEF were attenuated by vitamin E and vitamin C (p < 0.05).
   b)Anti-oxidant; 24-Hour average
[pollutant]: SO2 33 (ppb), PM10 56.68
(μg/m3), NO2 30 (μg/m3) ozone 32 (ppb)
      
  1. * For crossover studies, each individual subjected to each condition; in non-crossover, the conditions were distributed between subjects.