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Table 4 Univariate and covariate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality according to social capital

From: Assessing the association between all-cause mortality and multiple aspects of individual social capital among the older Japanese

   Univariate (imputation)   Univariate (non-imputation)   Covariate adjusted (imputation)   Covariate adjusted (non-imputation)  
   HR 95%CI   HR 95%CI   HR 95%CI   HR 95%CI  
General trust              
   Generally speaking, would you say that most people can be trusted? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) Depends 0.98 (0.67-1.43)   0.99 (0.70-1.42)   0.98 (0.65-1.50)   0.97 (0.79-1.18)  
  No (Low SC) 0.80 (0.55-1.16)   0.80 (0.60-1.05)   0.65 (0.45-0.96) * 0.62 (0.42-0.93) *
   Would you say that most of the time people try to be helpful? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) Depends 1.26 (0.81-1.95)   1.27 (0.84-1.92)   1.29 (0.72-2.32)   0.95 (0.67-1.34)  
  No (Low SC) 1.69 (1.00-2.87)   1.72 (1.07-2.77) * 1.49 (0.84-2.64)   1.29 (0.99-1.67)  
   Do you think most people would try to take advantage of you if they got a chance? (Ref; Yes (Low SC)) Depends 0.94 (0.54-1.65)   0.94 (0.60-1.48)   1.15 (0.60-2.22)   0.90 (0.41-1.95)  
  No (High SC) 1.10 (0.49-2.49)   1.11 (0.52-2.38)   1.33 (0.49-3.60)   1.21 (0.42-3.50)  
Social support              
   Do you have someone who listens to your concerns and complaints? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) No (Low SC) 1.36 (0.80-2.30)   1.36 (0.86-2.14)   1.11 (0.62-1.99)   1.22 (0.57-2.61)  
   Do you have someone who looks after you when you are sick and stay in bed for a few days? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) No (Low SC) 0.86 (0.60-1.24)   0.86 (0.59-1.26)   0.84 (0.50-1.43)   0.85 (0.45-1.60)  
   Do you have someone who acknowledges your existence and value? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) No (Low SC) 1.31 (0.65-2.66)   1.32 (0.74-2.36)   1.05 (0.56-1.95)   0.91 (0.55-1.51)  
Generalised reciprocity              
   Do you listen to someone's concerns and complaints? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) No (Low SC) 2.31 (1.49-3.58) * 2.38 (1.56-3.63) * 1.57 (0.96-2.55)   1.40 (0.71-2.77)  
   Do you look after someone when he/she is sick and stays in bed for a few days? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) No (Low SC) 1.71 (1.18-2.47) * 1.72 (1.23-2.39) * 0.92 (0.63-1.35)   0.73 (0.51-1.05)  
Social network              
   Political organization or group (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.55 (0.58-4.09)   1.55 (0.79-3.02)   1.25 (0.42-3.76)   1.48 (0.63-3.46)  
   Industrial or trade association (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 2.92 (0.58-14.64)   4.19 (1.46-12.02) * 1.95 (0.38-9.97)   2.51 (0.77-8.14)  
   Volunteer group (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.76 (0.81-3.83)   1.75 (1.09-2.80) * 1.06 (0.38-2.95)   0.95 (0.54-1.67)  
   Citizen or consumer group (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.76 (0.45-6.90)   2.07 (1.00-4.30)   1.14 (0.21-6.11)   0.92 (0.56-1.51)  
   Religious organization or group (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.17 (0.77-1.80)   1.19 (0.95-1.50)   1.25 (0.73-2.14)   1.54 (0.84-2.85)  
   Sports group or club (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 2.32 (1.41-3.82) * 2.33 (1.72-3.17) * 1.42 (0.78-2.59)   1.72 (1.11-2.68) *
   Neighbourhood association / Senior citizen club / Fire-fighting team (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.19 (0.94-1.52)   1.22 (1.03-1.44) * 1.11 (0.86-1.43)   1.19 (0.95-1.48)  
   Leisure activity group (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 2.24 (1.36-3.68) * 2.32 (1.52-3.54) * 1.54 (0.92-2.57)   1.60 (1.10-2.32) *
   How often do you see your friends? (Ref; Once or more/month) Several/year 1.00 (0.64-1.58)   0.99 (0.68-1.42)   0.92 (0.58-1.46)   0.87 (0.40-1.87)  
     Rarely 2.41 (1.31-4.45) * 2.44 (1.40-4.26) * 1.64 (0.90-2.98)   1.62 (0.82-3.22)  
     Having no friend 3.40 (2.10-5.52) * 3.55 (2.37-5.32) * 1.81 (1.02-3.23) * 2.10 (0.71-6.26)  
  1. Multiple imputation Cox proportional hazard models: the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), Aichi, Japan, 2003-2008, Women1.
  2. 1 Adjusted for age, BMI, self-rated health, current illness, smoking history, alcohol consumption, exercise, equivalent income and education.
  3. * Statistically significant variable (p < 0.05).