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Table 3 Univariate and covariate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality according to social capital

From: Assessing the association between all-cause mortality and multiple aspects of individual social capital among the older Japanese

   Univariate (imputation)   Univariate (non-imputation)   Covariate adjusted (imputation)   Covariate adjusted (non-imputation)  
   HR 95%CI   HR 95%CI   HR 95%CI   HR 95%CI  
General trust              
   Generally speaking, would you say that most people can be trusted? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) Depends 0.96 (0.77-1.20)   0.97 (0.80-1.17)   0.90 (0.69-1.16)   1.01 (0.77-1.33)  
  No (Low SC) 1.24 (0.91-1.70)   1.25 (0.96-1.63)   1.01 (0.74-1.36)   0.96 (0.65-1.42)  
   Would you say that most of the time people try to be helpful? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) Depends 1.00 (0.84-1.20)   1.01 (0.87-1.16)   0.92 (0.78-1.08)   1.00 (0.86-1.16)  
  No (Low SC) 1.42 (1.01-2.00) * 1.41 (1.06-1.87) * 1.20 (0.83-1.74)   1.06 (0.69-1.63)  
   Do you think most people would try to take advantage of you if they got a chance? (Ref; Yes (Low SC)) Depends 0.91 (0.63-1.33)   0.92 (0.65-1.30)   1.01 (0.61-1.68)   1.00 (0.57-1.73)  
Social support              
   Do you have someone who listens to your concerns and complaints? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) No (Low SC) 1.33 (0.79-2.23)   1.33 (0.80-2.20)   1.09 (0.61-1.95)   1.17 (0.63-2.15)  
   Do you have someone who looks after you when you are sick and stay in bed for a few days? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) No (Low SC) 1.06 (0.70-1.61)   1.06 (0.71-1.58)   0.84 (0.58-1.22)   0.87 (0.50-1.52)  
   Do you have someone who acknowledges your existence and value? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) No (Low SC) 1.49 (0.99-2.25)   1.48 (0.95-2.30)   1.18 (0.67-2.08)   1.33 (0.70-2.54)  
General reciprocity              
   Do you listen to someone's concerns and complaints? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) No (Low SC) 1.59 (1.24-2.04) * 1.58 (1.31-1.91) * 1.27 (0.95-1.70)   1.03 (0.70-1.51)  
   Do you look after someone when he/she is sick and stays in bed for a few days? (Ref; Yes (High SC)) No (Low SC) 1.49 (1.12-2.00) * 1.44 (1.13-1.83) * 1.01 (0.78-1.32)   0.83 (0.70-0.98) *
Social network              
   Political organization or group (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.14 (0.83-1.56)   1.11 (0.85-1.46)   0.99 (0.71-1.39)   1.11 (0.83-1.49)  
   Industrial or trade association (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.04 (0.72-1.51)   1.02 (0.80-1.29)   0.88 (0.59-1.30)   0.91 (0.62-1.35)  
   Volunteer group (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.78 (1.34-2.37) * 1.75 (1.39-2.21) * 1.30 (0.95-1.77)   1.51 (1.19-1.91) *
   Citizen or consumer group (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.05 (0.59-1.86)   0.98 (0.57-1.68)   0.79 (0.43-1.47)   0.95 (0.37-2.40)  
   Religious organization or group (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.10 (0.77-1.56)   1.11 (0.79-1.56)   1.21 (0.86-1.70)   1.30 (1.06-1.58) *
   Sports group or club (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.89 (1.28-2.80) * 1.98 (1.52-2.58) * 1.32 (0.78-2.21)   1.44 (1.10-1.88) *
   Neighbourhood association / Senior citizen club / Fire-fighting team (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.16 (0.94-1.42)   1.15 (0.95-1.39)   1.12 (0.90-1.40)   1.20 (0.80-1.81)  
   Leisure activity group (Ref; yes) No (Low SC) 1.64 (1.21-2.20) * 1.59 (1.40-1.81) * 1.29 (0.94-1.77)   1.27 (1.04-1.55) *
   How often do you meet your friends? (Ref; Once or more/month) Several/year 1.26 (0.96-1.67)   1.26 (0.99-1.60)   1.09 (0.77-1.56)   1.06 (0.75-1.48)  
  Rarely 1.99 (1.72-2.31) * 1.99 (1.75-2.25) * 1.30 (1.10-1.53) * 1.38 (1.28-1.49) *
  Having no friend 1.43 (0.79-2.56)   1.41 (0.90-2.20)   0.77 (0.47-1.26)   0.49 (0.19-1.26)  
  1. Multiple imputation Cox proportional hazard models: the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), Aichi, Japan, 2003-2008, Men1.
  2. 1 Adjusted for age, BMI, self-rated health, current illness, smoking history, alcohol consumption, exercise, equivalent income and education.
  3. * Statistically significant variable (p < 0.05).