Skip to main content

Table 4 Characteristics of Qualitative studies

From: Behavioural interventions for weight management in pregnancy: A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data

Study Aims Methods Pregnancy History Age range Marital Status Indicator of se status Ethnicity
Gross & Bee 2004[29] To examine the effect of pregnancy on women's recreational activity patterns and to explore pregnant women's beliefs and information sources regarding physical exercise participation N = 51
Survey and interviews at 16, 25, 34, and 38 weeks gestation lasting 1.5 hours (recorded).
Thematic analysis
Previous pregnancies:
No previous pregnancy = 40 (70%)
Previous miscarriage = 10 (18%)Termination = 7 (12%)
Range 15.7 to 38.2 years (mean 26.3 SD 5.2) Married = 37 (65%)
Cohabiting = 8 (14%)
Single = 12 (21%)
Education:
Up to 16 years = 32 (55%)
Tertiary/professional = 11 (19%)
NR
Fairburn & Welch 1990[30] To describe the changes in eating habits and attitudes to shape and weight during pregnancy. To determine whether there was a difference with respect to these changes between those women who have previously been concerned about their shape and weight and eating and those who have not. N = 50
Semi-structured interviews
Primigravida inpatients on post-natal wards; birth within previous 3 days.
Mean body mass pre-pregnancy: mean 21.9 (SD = 3.1) 3 had BMI > 25; 3 had BMI < 20
4 had history of bulimia nervosa Mean weight gain = 14.1 kg (SD = 4.1 kg, range 6-25 kg).
Age: mean 25.3 years (SD = 5.3) range 18-37 Married = 42 (84%)
Single = 8
Social class: I = 0; II = 24%; IIIa = 52%; IIIb = 12%; IV = 8%; V = 4% NR
Fox & Yamaguchi1997[31] To examine the relationship between pre-pregnancy body weight and body image change in primigravid women N = 76
Anonymous questionnaire and interviews.
Thematic analysis
Prepregnancy BMI:
Normal weight n = 42; mean 21.55 (range 20-24)
Overweight n = 34; mean 29.24 (range 25-39)
Weeks gestation:
Normal weight n = 42; Mean 35 (range 30-41)
Overweight n = 34; Mean 36 (range 30-42)
Prepregnancy to current weight gain:
Normal weight n = 42; Mean 11.95 (range 9-15)
Overweight n = 34; Mean 12.27 (range 10.4-14.5)
Range: 18-27 years NR Professional = 6 (8%)
Intermediate = 20 (26%)
Skilled non-manual = 3 (4%)
Skilled manual = 3 (4%)
Partly skilled = 1 (1%)
Unskilled = 17 (22%)
Unemployed or not in paid employment = 12 (16%)
White = 57 (75%)
Black = 16 (21%)
Indian Asian = 3 (4%)
Johnson et al 2004[35] To provide more useful insights on the impact of bodily changes during the transition to motherhood (previous research has been contradictory), using IPA. N = 6
In-depth interviews
IPA (Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis)
  Ages between 26-34 6 married and living with husbands 4 educated to > degree level 1 British Asian, 5 White
Levy 1999[32] To map the process involved when women make informed choices during pregnancy N = 12
Observation and tape recordings of 'booking' interviews between women and midwives. These were transcribed and data considered to be related to decision making was analysed, and also used to trigger conversation in the follow up interviews.
Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim.
Data analysis:
Grounded Theory
Sample:
Women attending antenatal clinics in a variety of maternity settings in England
5 primigravada
9 one child
3 two children
3 three children
3 four children
Age range 20 - 38 years. All women except 1 were in a supportive relationship. Occupations:
Housewives, bank clerk, secretaries, local government officer, farmer, publishing representative.
All British, Caucasian apart from 1 woman of Chinese origin.
Warriner
2000[33]
To examine how the experience of being weighed throughout pregnancy affects women Interview schedule with prompts. Tape recorded and transcribed; notes made throughout.
Data analysis:
Qualitative content analysis to identify themes and patterns (Polit & Hungler 1995)
Sample:
10 interviewed, 6 in focus group (we are not told whether any of these are the same women).
Convenience sample from women attending 2 separate mother and toddler groups (self-selected)
No baseline characteristics given
NR NR NR NR
Wiles
1998[36]
To examine the beliefs of women above average weight about appropriate levels of weight gain in pregnancy Data Collection:
Interpretative qualitative based on Grounded Theory.
Data analysis:
Transcripts were read several times and coded, then themes were identified which were pursued in subsequent interviews. Further analysis clarified these themes
Sample: 37 Overweight pregnant women of > 30 weeks gestation.
Age range = 16-35 years
No. of children ranged from 0-3
Weight range 70-138 kg prior to pregnancy (mean 91 kg)
Mean prepreg BMI = 32
Weight change at 30 weeks:
2 women lost weight
Up to gains of 33 kg
None were referred to Dietitians, all were given the same recommendations re weight gain.
  30 (81%) lived with partners in independent households.
6 lived with parents
1 lived alone
25 (67%) came from social classes III-V All white and able-bodied.
Heselhurst et al 2006[40] To gain a detailed understanding of healthcare professionals' perceptions of the impact that caring for obese pregnant women has on maternity services. N = 33
Interviews with one (face-to-face) or more member of staff (focus group or discussion meeting).
A confirmatory focus group was held to discuss final themes and ensure data saturation.
Systematic thematic content analysis (Burnard 1991) adapted from Grounded Theory approach.
  1. NR: not reported