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Table 1 Comparisons of Counties with and without Dedicated Local Public Health Tax Levy

From: The effects on population health status of using dedicated property taxes to fund local public health agencies

  Dedicated Local Public Health Tax Levy   
  With a tax (n = 338) Without a tax (n = 382) t-value Pr > t*
Demographic/socioeconomic     
Mean total population 53,454 65,670 0.77 0.4389
Percent net migration (net migrants/total population) 1.32 0.71 -1.14 0.2531
Population aged >65 years (%) 14.5 14.25 -1.13 0.2568
Population aged <18 years (%) 23.94 24.34 2.21 0.0272
Non-whites of total population (%) 9.69 22.22 9.83 <.0001
Per capita Income ($) 23,920 23,485 -1.32 0.1874
Household income ($) 35,297 33,026 -3.71 0.0002
Poverty (%) 16.29 17.88 3.68 0.0002
Percent rurality (rural population/total population) § 63.29 66.71 1.67 0.0951
Medicaid eligible (%) 24.07 27.7 5.87 <.0001
Physicians (total licensed MD or DO/1,000 total population) 1.1 1.18 0.99 0.3218
Unemployment (%) 6.37 6.53 1.37 0.1714
Uninsured§ (%) 13.94 15.57 5.69 <.0001
Total population mortality (per 100,000 population)     
Age-adjusted mortality 939.74 972.83 3.88 0.0001
Years of potential life lost (before age 75) 8,828.90 9,902.10 7.13 <.0001
Major disease mortality (age-adjusted/100,000 population)     
Heart disease 261.14 276.98 4.21 <.0001
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) 339.45 363.75 5.91 <.0001
Cerebrovascular disease (Stroke) 56.31 63.01 5.76 <.0001
Chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) 52.79 51.29 -1.22 0.2222
Diabetes 29.07 29.42 0.36 0.7161
Pneumonia/influenza 25.74 27.45 2.05 0.0410
Cancer mortality and incidence (age-adjusted/100,000 population)     
All types of cancer mortality 218.34 214.29 -1.95 0.0518
Lung and bronchus cancer mortality 70.42 68.61 -1.50 0.1336
All types of cancer incidence 482.3 441.2 -10.23 <.0001
Lung and bronchus cancer incidence 88.78 80.18 -6.37 <.0001
Colorectal cancer incidence 58.46 53.4 -6.14 <.0001
Female breast cancer incidence 116.34 108.04 -5.28 <.0001
Prostate cancer incidence 141.84 141.04 -0.28 0.7823
Trauma/accidents (age-adjusted/100,000 population)     
Unintentional injury mortality 58.93 60.43 1.07 0.2857
  1. * P-value < 0.05 indicating statistically significant
  2. § 2000 year data only