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Table 2 Factors associated with atopy in 1,482 school children aged 6-15 years living in urban and rural areas in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana

From: High body mass index is not associated with atopy in schoolchildren living in rural and urban areas of Ghana

   UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS**
Variable Atopy (%)* Combined
OR (95% CI)
Urban
OR (95% CI)
Rural
OR (95% CI)
Combined
OR (95% CI)
Urban
OR (95% CI)
Rural
OR (95% CI)
Sex        
Female 135 (17.4) 1 1 1 1 1 1
Male 183 (25.9) 1.66 (1.29-2.13) 1.90 (1.30-2.79) 1.49 (1.06-2.08) 1.63 (1.26-2.11) 2.10 (1.41-3.13) 1.45 (1.03-2.04)
Age        
6-8 years 61 (18.8) 1 1 1 1 1 1
9-11 years 126 (20.7) 1.13 (0.80-1.58) 1.12 (0.61-2.05) 1.15 (0.76-1.75) 1.14 (0.80-1.63) 1.19 (0.63-2.24) 1.18 (0.76-1.82)
12-15 years 131 (23.8) 1.35 (0.96-1.90) 1.76 (1.00-3.07) 1.32 (0.83-2.09) 1.36 (0.95-1.96) 1.89 (1.05-3.42) 1.28 (0.79-2.07)
Nutritional status indicators    
Normal weight 254 (21.8) 1 1 1 1 1 1
Underweight 254 (21.8) 0.61 (0.36-1.04) 0.58 (0.30-1.12) 1.08 (0.42-2.78) 0.57 (0.33-0.99) 0.52 (0.26-1.02) 1.07 (0.40-2.83)
High BMI 47 (23.7) 254 (21.8) 1.12 (0.78-1.60) 1.00 (0.55-1.83) 1.13 (0.73-1.77) 1.17 (0.81-1.69) 1.23 (0.66-2.29) 1.17 (0.73-1.87)
Passive smoking       
Non-exposed 125 (20.3) 1 1 1    
Exposed 61 (20.4) 1.00 (0.71-1.42) 0.78 (0.50-1.23) 1.54 (0.89-2.66)    
Family history of asthma      
No 94 (17.9) 61 (20.4) 1 1 1 1 1 1
Yes 70 (25.5) 1.57 (1.10-2.23) 1.58 (1.01-2.47) 1.52 (0.86-2.67) 1.56 (1.09-2.24) 1.54 (0.97-2.46) 1.41 (0.79-2.53)
No idea 20 (18.5) 1.04 (0.61-1.78) 0.80 (0.39-1.65) 1.53 (0.67-3.46) 0.99 (0.58-1.72) 0.68 (0.32-1.43) 1.56 (0.68-3.60)
Occupational status of parent    
Unemployed 9 (30.0) 1 1 1 1 1 1
Employed 183 (20.2) 0.59 (0.27-1.31) 0.33 (0.12-0.93) 1.13 (0.31-4.13) 0.65 (0.29-1.47) 0.33 (0.11-1.00) 1.26 (0.32-4.95)
Source of domestic fuel       
LPG*** 77 (20.6) 1 1 1    
Charcoal 50 (16.9) 0.78 (0.53-1.16) 0.75 (0.47-1.19) 0.88 (0.09-8.29)    
Firewood 59 (23.7) 1.19 (0.81-1.75) 0.52 (0.22-1.28) 1.45 (0.16-13.29)    
Exclusive breast feeding       
None 22 (18.0) 1 1 1    
1-6 months 138 (21.6) 1.25 (0.76-2.06) 1.29 (0.62-2.70) 1.01 (0.51-2.03)    
6-12 months 17 (16.0) 0.87 (0.43-1.74) 1.34 (0.50-3.57) 0.52 (0.19-1.41)    
Educational level of parent       
No formal education 57 (21.0) 1 1 1 1 1 1
7-9 years education 67 (19.3) 0.92 (0.62-1.36) 0.76 (0.43-1.37) 1.09 (0.64-1.87) 0.92 (0.61-1.39) 0.68 (0.37-1.26) 0.97 (0.56-1.70)
10-15 years education 35 (19.9) 0.94 (0.58-1.50) 0.43 (0.18-1.06) 1.32 (0.74-2.37) 0.98 (0.60-1.59) 0.44 (0.17-1.10) 1.24 (0.68-2.26)
Tertiary education 34 (22.4) 1.09 (0.67-1.76) 0.78 (0.38-1.59) 1.51 (0.79-2.90) 1.07 (0.65-1.75) 0.67 (0.32-1.41) 1.36 (0.70-2.65)
Intestinal parasite infection       
Not infected 218 (20.0) 1 1 1 1   1
Hookworm 26 (29.2) 1.66 (1.02-2.68) 1.39 (0.38-5.13) 1.43 (0.84-2.45) 1.39 (0.84-2.83) - 1.34 (0.77-2.33)
Trichuris sp 5 (27.8) 1.54 (0.54-4.28) - 1.50 (0.51-4.41) 1.53 (0.53-4.39) - 1.50 (0.50-4.50)
Ascaris sp 19 (20.4) 1.03 (0.61-1.74) - 0.85 (0.49-1.47) 1.00 (0.57-1.74) - 0.79 (0.45-1.38)
Co-infected 9 (37.5) 2.41 (1.04-5.58) - 2.47 (1.01-6.04) 2.13 (0.90-5.04) - 2.23 (0.90-5.58)
S. haematobium infection       
No 290 (21.6) 1 1 1    
Yes 20 (22.2) 1.04 (0.62-1.74) 0.81 (0.23-2.80) 0.93 (0.52-1.65)    
  1. * Totals for atopy may differ due to missing values of some variables.
  2. ** Adjusted for all other variables in the analysis. For inclusion in the multivariate model, a variable's p-value for the unadjusted odds ratio had to be ≤ 0.10
  3. *** LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas