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Table 4 Unadjusted Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) of Presenteeism for those with and without co-morbid psychological distress compared to the reference group that had neither the indexed health condition nor co-morbid psychological distress

From: Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

   Without co-morbid PD With co-morbid PD
HEALTH CONDITION Model n % RRR (95%CIs) % RRR (95%CIs)
Arthritis 64079 3.5 1.10 (0.90-1.33) 0.2 7.90** (5.21-11.97)
Asthma 64970 6.3 1.22* (1.06-1.40) 0.3 5.91** (4.20-8.30)
Back/neck pain 69701 29.6 1.22** (1.13-1.31) 1.5 7.83** (6.76-9.08)
Cancers 73585 3.1 0.87 (0.70-1.08) 0.14 7.36** (4.78-11.34)
COPD 70852 0.4 2.14** (1.41-3.24) 0.03 7.53** (2.92-19.43)
CVD 73083 0.8 1.47 (1.04-2.07) 0.06 7.10** (3.54-14.22)
Drug & Alcohol 74439 3.0 2.57** (2.25-2.94) 0.5 8.59** (6.81-10.84)
Diabetes 72935 2.0 1.33* (1.06-1.65) 0.12 7.60** (4.72-12.22)
Fatigue/sleep problems 73698 0.6 2.56** (1.89-3.46) 0.10 8.80** (5.35-14.46)
High Blood Pressure 70119 8.1 0.90 (0.79-1.04) 0.3 6.43** (4.75-8.69)
High Cholesterol 67801 5.7 1.02 (0.87-1.19) 0.2 7.31** (5.13-10.41)
Migraine/severe headache 69999 9.1 1.30** (1.16-1.45) 0.7 7.27** (5.94-8.90)
Obesity 70967 11.0 1.60** (1.42-1.73) 0.7 7.68** (6.22-9.48)
Workplace Injury 74086 7.0 1.35** (1.20-1.53) 0.5 9.46** (7.47-11.99)
  1. Using multinomial logistic regression, reporting relative risk ratios for low productivity compared to average productivity (high productivity not reported)
  2. *: p < 0.05; **: p < 0.001; † trend < 0.1