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Table 1 Baseline and 1-year or 3-year follow-up data in the control and intervention groups.

From: Prevention of type 2 diabetes in a primary healthcare setting: Three-year results of lifestyle intervention in Japanese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

Parameters Control group Intervention group P value b
  Baseline a
(n = 131)
1-year
(n = 131)
3-year
(n = 110)
Baseline
(n = 123)
1-year
(n = 123)
3-year
(n = 103)
at 1-year
mark
at 3-year
mark
Energy intake (kcal) 2455 ± 838 2292 ± 739* 2153 ± 734* 2299 ± 788 2097 ± 895* 2016 ± 677* 0.647 0.794
   Fat c (%) 27.5 ± 5.2 27.4 ± 5.2 27.8 ± 5.4 26.5 ± 5.6 25.5 ± 5.6* 25.7 ± 5.2 0.088 0.110
   Alcohol (g) 21.0 ± 36.1 18.6 ± 29.2 13.7 ± 23.2* 20.1 ± 44.8 24.6 ± 87.7 15.7 ± 29.8 0.171 0.149
Leisure time physical activity (kcal) 136 ± 159 163 ± 172* 181 ± 201* 91 ± 132 155 ± 180* 161 ± 215* 0.078 0.214
   Exercise (kcal) 57 ± 79 86 ± 99* 92 ± 105* 43 ± 88 82 ± 122* 74 ± 117* 0.474 0.958
   Exercise (minutes per week) 118 ± 160 184 ± 206* 185 ± 229* 91 ± 187 184 ± 262* 160 ± 229* 0.339 0.556
   Non-exercise (kcal) d 79 ± 139 76 ± 133 90 ± 174 49 ± 85 74 ± 119* 88 ± 186* 0.045 0.148
Weight (kg) 63.9 ± 11.7 63.1 ± 11.7* 62.5 ± 11.2* 64.9 ± 12.9 63.5 ± 12.9* 63.1 ± 12.9* 0.023 0.069
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.5 ± 3.2 24.2 ± 3.1* 24.4 ± 3.3* 24.8 ± 3.6 24.2 ± 3.6* 24.3 ± 3.7* 0.022 0.051
Waist circumference (cm) 84.4 ± 9.4 83.3 ± 8.6* 84.2 ± 9.5 85.9 ± 10.9 84.2 ± 10.5* 84.7 ± 11.9 0.309 0.362
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 6.1 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.6 6.0 ± 0.9 5.9 ± 0.5 5.8 ± 0.6* 6.0 ± 0.8 0.698 0.481
2-hplasma glucose (mmol/l) 9.0 ± 0.9 8.3 ± 2.0* 8.5 ± 2.4 9.2 ± 0.9 8.0 ± 2.1* 8.4 ± 2.5* 0.083 0.553
Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 43.8 ± 21.6 44.4 ± 40.8 45.8 ± 23.9 43.2 ± 22.2 44.4 ± 25.2 47.6 ± 36.1 0.861 0.632
2-h insulin (pmol/l) 330.6 ± 211.8 308.4 ± 178.8 377.4 ± 280.7 337.8 ± 199.8 342.0 ± 271.2 390.0 ± 374.2 0.413 0.999
Matsuda index e 5.4 ± 3.5 5.6 ± 3.3 5.3 ± 3.2 4.8 ± 2.3 5.9 ± 3.7* 5.5 ± 3.4* <0.001 <0.001
Aspartate aminotransferase (IU/l) 25 ± 8 25 ± 12 26 ± 15 25 ± 12 23 ± 13 25 ± 17 0.170 0.977
Alanine aminotranseferase (IU/l) 25 ± 16 26 ± 17 27 ± 16 26 ± 18 24 ± 17 25 ± 14 0.212 0.520
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (IU/l) 53 ± 58 59 ± 91 59 ± 97* 48 ± 46 44 ± 47* 43 ± 66 0.041 0.158
  1. Data are means ± SDs. a There were no significant differences in any of the baseline variables between the control and intervention groups except for non-exercise physical activity. b P values for differences in change between groups. c Proportion of energy derived from dietary fat. d Non-exercise leisure time physical activity includes gardening, carpentry, shopping, and playing a musical instrument. e The Matsuda index is an insulin sensitivity index derived from oral glucose testing. * P value < 0.05 (Baseline vs. 1-year or 3-year).