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Table 2 Distribution of baseline characteristics of the men across BMI-MetS categories among men.

From: "Predictability of body mass index for diabetes: Affected by the presence of metabolic syndrome?"

Men Normal weight Normal weight Overweight Overweight Obese Obese  
  Without MetS With MetS (N = 93) Without MetS With MetS Without MetS With MetS p
  (N = 830)   (N = 552) (N = 400) (N = 81) (N = 230)  
Diabetic, (%) 23(2.8) 9(9.7) 26(4.7) 43(10.8) 8(9.9) 38(16.5)  
Age, y 41.0(14.64) 49.4(15.64)a 41.9(12.98) 47.9(13.39)a 42.0(12.90) 44.8(13.34)a <0.001
BMI, kg.m-2 22.2(2.00) 23.4(1.39)a 26.9(1.31)a 27.6(1.38)a 31.9(1.84)a 32.6(2.96)a <0.001
Waist, cm 78.80(6.66) 84.39(6.49)a 90.38(5.32)a 95.06(5.77)a 101.35(6.90)a 105.08(7.87)a <0.001
SBP, mmHg 113.8(14.96) 127.9(16.19)a 116.4(13.58)a 129.2(18.34)a 118.6(16.37)a 128.9(17.36)a <0.001
DBP, mmHg 73.1(9.30) 82.3(10.30)a 76.5 (8.92)a 83.9(10.55)a 78.1(8.78)a 84.9(10.39)a <0.001
FPG, mmol/L 4.89(0.45) 5.35(0.64)a 4.96(0.47) 5.27(0.58)a 4.99(0.35) 5.27(0.55)a <0.001
2hPCPG, mmol/L 5.19(1.45) 6.33(1.85)a 5.66(1.59)a 6.30(1.88)a 6.11(1.77)a 6.32(1.85)a <0.001
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.06(0.24) 0.85(0.15)a 1.00(0.23a 0.89(0.18a 1.09(0.23) 0.89(0.19)a <0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.3(1.26-1.35) 2.6 (2.36-2.77)a 1.7 (1.61-1.75)a 2.6(2.45-2.68)a 1.5(1.34-1.68) 2.5 (2.31-2.60)a <0.001
Intervention, n (%) 285(34.3) 21(22.6) 209(37.9) 141(35.3) 33(40.7) 92(40.0) 0.042
Smoking (%) 362(43.9) 37(39.8) 212(38.4) 161(40.5) 22(27.2)b 96(41.9) 0.052
Hypertension, n (%) 64(7.7) 36(38.7)b 57(10.3) 158(39.7)b 9(11.1) 87(38.2)b <0.001
History of CVD, n (%) 20(2.4) 8(8.6)b 18(3.3) 30(7.5)b 1(1.2) 14(6.1)b <0.001
Education, n (%)        <0.001
Illiterate 167(20.1) 30(32.3)b 116(21.0) 126(31.5)b 24(29.6) 68(29.6)b  
Under diploma 496(59.8) 45(48.4) 329(59.6) 204(51.0)b 48(59.3) 126(54.8)  
Over diploma 167(20.1) 18(19.4) 107(19.4) 70(17.5) 9(11.1) 36(15.7)  
Family history DM (%) 176(21.2) 18(19.4) 146(26.4) 105(26.3) 21(25.9) 81(35.2)b 0.001
  1. BMI, body mass index; CVD: Cardiovascular disease, DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FPG, fasting plasma glucose, HDL-C: High density lipoprotein cholesterol, MetS, metabolic syndrome; SBP, systolic blood pressure; 2hPCPG; 2 hours post-challenge plasma glucose,
  2. Data has been represented either as mean (SD) for continuous variables or n(%) for categorically distributed variables ANOVA; % is shown for categorical variables with P value according to chi-square; TG was log-transformed and is shown as geometric mean (CI).
  3. BMI (kg.m-2) categories: normal <25; overweight, 25-30; and obese ≥ 30.
  4. Hypertension: Blood pressure ≥ 140/90 and/or taking of antihypertensive medication.
  5. aP < 0.05 compared with normal-weight participants without MetS. (base on Dunnett t-test).
  6. b P < 0.01 compared with normal-weight participants without MetS. (base on chi-square test).