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Table 3 Demographic associations with stage of readiness to screen and screening behavior

From: Demographic, social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention and participation in screening for colorectal cancer

    Stage of Readiness to Screen     Screening behavior  
   Precontemplation (n = 215) Contemplation (n = 110) Preparation (n = 51) χ2 Non-participants (n = 184) Participants (n = 192) χ2
   n % n % n %   n % n %  
Age 50 - 54 65 30.2 31 28.4 12 23.5 5.93 62 33.9 46 24.0 8.27
  55 - 59 60 27.9 33 30.3 17 33.3   54 29.5 56 29.2  
  60 - 64 40 18.6 28 25.7 9 17.6   38 20.8 39 20.3  
  65 - 69 25 11.6 10 9.2 7 13.7   15 8.2 27 14.1  
  70 - 75 25 11.6 7 6.4 6 11.8   14 7.7 24 12.5  
Gender Male 106 49.3 43 39.4 32 62.7 7.77* 95 51.9 86 44.8 1.90
  Female 109 50.7 66 60.6 19 37.3   88 48.1 106 55.2  
Marital Married/de-facto 156 73.2 81 75.7 41 80.4 1.17 135 73.8 143 76.1 0.26
status Non-married1 57 26.8 26 24.3 10 19.6   48 26.2 45 23.9  
Employment Full-time 79 36.7 43 40.2 23 45.1 3.33 82 44.8 63 33.2 6.12
status Part-time 42 19.5 19 17.8 9 17.6   34 18.6 36 18.9  
  Home duties/unemployed 18 8.4 8 7.5 1 2.0   12 6.6 15 7.9  
  Retired/Semi-retired 76 35.3 37 34.6 18 35.3   55 30.1 76 40.0  
Education Primary school 17 7.9 9 8.3 1 2.0 5.92 12 6.6 15 7.9 3.55
  High school 101 47.2 49 45.0 3 52.0   81 44.5 95 49.7  
  Technical certificate 54 25.2 28 25.7 16 32.0   48 26.4 50 26.2  
  Uni degree 23 10.7 16 14.7 5 10.0   27 14.8 17 8.9  
  Post-graduate degree 19 8.9 7 6.4 2 4.0   14 7.7 14 7.3  
Born in Yes 147 68.4 94 86.2 34 66.7 13.15** 135 73.8 140 72.9 0.04
Australia No 68 31.6 15 13.8 17 33.3   48 26.2 52 27.1  
Language English 186 86.9 104 95.4 46 93.9 6.78* 163 90.6 173 90.1 0.02
spoken Non-English 28 13.1 5 4.6 3 6.1   17 9.4 19 9.9  
Private health Yes 144 67.6 86 79.6 39 76.5 5.69 131 72.8 138 71.9 0.04
insurance No 69 32.4 22 20.4 12 23.5   49 27.2 54 28.1  
Socio-Economic Low 29 13.6 9 8.2 6 11.8 2.16 21 11.5 23 12.0 4.81
Status Medium 78 36.6 43 39.1 18 35.3   58 31.9 81 42.2  
  High 106 49.8 58 52.7 27 52.9   103 56.6 88 45.8  
Past cancer Yes 115 53.7 79 72.5 34 68.0 11.82** 100 54.6 128 67.4 6.35*
screening No 99 46.3 30 27.5 16 32.0   83 45.4 62 32.6  
Known someone with Yes 117 54.9 79 72.5 37 74.0 12.68** 100 55.2 133 69.6 8.22**
bowel cancer No 96 45.1 30 27.5 13 26.0   81 44.8 58 30.4  
  1. Note. Widowed, single, divorced and separated groups were combined into a non-married group due to low cell counts
  2. * p < 0.5, ** p < .01