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Table 3 Cross-sectional associations between ΣHFP, and ΣHFH and TV viewing habits in 8-10-year-olds and 14-16-year-olds

From: Television viewing, food preferences, and food habits among children: A prospective epidemiological study

  8-10 years 14-16 years
  Girls (n = 382) Boys (n = 315) Girls (n = 275) Boys (n = 220)
Σ Healthy Food Preferences
TV viewing (h/day)        
Crude model 2         
   >2 h/day -0.94* (-1.79; -0.08)1 -1.31*** (-2.07; -0.55) -0.96* (-1.71; -0.21) -0.75 (-1.54; 0.04)
   1-2 h/day -0.54* (-1.06; -0.01) -1.11*** (-1.70; -0.53) -0.50 (-1.15; 0.15) -0.24 (-0.99; 0.50)
   <1 h/day 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref
Adjusted model 3        
   >2 h/day -1.06* (-1.91; -0.21) -1.36*** (-2.13; -0.59) -0.94* (-1.69; -0.18) -0.78 (-1.57; 0.02)
   1-2 h/day -0.61* (-1.13; -0.09) -1.12*** (-1.70; -0.54) -0.44 (-1.08; 0.21) -0.38 (-1.13; 0.36)
   <1 h/day 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref
TV meals/week        
Crude model 2         
   most days/every day -0.04 (-0.71; 0.63) -0.83* (-1.50; -0.16) -0.60 (-1.37; 0.17) -0.67 (-1.43; 0.10)
   1-2 times/week 0.68* (0.06; 1.31) -0.29 (-1.01; 0.42) -0.26 (-1.02; 0.50) -0.68 (-1.52; 0.15)
   almost never/never 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref
Adjusted model 3        
   most days/every day -0.04 (-0.71; 0.63) -0.84* (-1.52; -0.16) -0.66 (-1.44; 0.12) -0.72 (-1.48; 0.05)
   1-2 times/week 0.60 (-0.02; 1.22) -0.28 (-1.00; 0.44) -0.33 (-1.10; 0.44) -0.72 (-1.56; 0.12)
   almost never/never 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref
Σ Healthy Food Habits
TV viewing (h/day)        
Crude model 2         
   >2 h/day -1.45** (-2.50; -0.40) -1.67** (-2.71; -0.64) -1.47** (-2.37; -0.56) -2.16*** (-3.27; -1.04)
   1-2 h/day -0.72* (-1.37; -0.08) -0.73 (-1.51; 0.06) -0.20 (-0.98; 0.59) -0.88 (-1.93; 0.16)
   <1 h/day 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref
Adjusted model 3        
   >2 h/day -1.58** (-2.60; -0.55) -1.48** (-2.51; -0.45) -1.39** (-2.30; -0.49) -2.02*** (-3.15; -0.89)
   1-2 h/day -0.94** (-1.57; -0.31) -0.67 (-1.44; 0.10) -0.16 (-0.93; 0.62) -0.80 (-1.87; 0.26)
   <1 h/day 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref
TV meals/week        
Crude model 2         
   most days/every day -1.61*** (-2.43; -0.79) -2.50*** (-3.36; -1.65) -1.28** (-2.20; -0.37) -2.14*** (-3.20; -1.08)
   1-2 times/week -0.60 (-1.36; 0.16) -1.00* (-1.92; -0.07) 0.16 (-0.75; 1.07) -0.60 (-1.77; 0.56)
   almost never/never 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref
Adjusted model 3         
   most days/every day -1.56*** (-2.36; -0.76) -2.25*** (-3.11; -1.40) -1.24** (-2.16; -0.32) -2.04*** (-3.12; -0.96)
   1-2 times/week -0.71 (-1.45; 0.03) -1.02* (-1.93; -0.11) 0.07 (-0.85; 0.98) -0.51 (-1.69; 0.67)
   almost never/never 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref 0 ref
  1. ΣHFP, Sum of healthy food preferences; ΣHFH, sum of healthy food habits; ref, reference category.
  2. 1Estimate (95% confidence interval), all such values.
  3. 2Adjusted for survey year. School included in model as random effect.
  4. 3Adjusted for survey year, BMI z-score, maternal BMI, paternal BMI, physical activity, SES (maternal education). School included in model as random effect.
  5. *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001.