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Table 1 Summary of included studies

From: The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

Study & setting Population Waterpipe use prevalence
Middle East   
Tamim 2003 [23] Parents of school students (mean age 13,52% males); N = 625 Waterpipe only: 9%
Lebanon, 2000   Cigarettes & waterpipe: 18%
Bachir 2008 [39] Pregnant women delivering in hospitals (mean age 28); N = 934 Life time: 12%
Lebanon, 1997-1998   During pregnancy: 6%
Riachy 2008 [63] General population; N = 37579 Waterpipe only: 4%
Lebanon, 2003-2005   More than one form: 20%
Chaaya 2004 [22] Sophomore university students (52% males); N = 416 Current: 28%
Lebanon   Ex smokers: 15%
Chaaya 2004 [41] Pregnant women in primary care clinics (mean age 27); N = 864 Before pregnancy: 7%
Lebanon, 2003   During pregnancy: 4%
Zoughaib 2004 [17] Teenage students (mean age 16; 57% males); N = 1461 Ever: 66%
Lebanon, 2002   Regular: 24%
Chaaya 2003 [40] Pregnant women delivering in hospitals (mean age 28.1); N = 576 Ever: 18%
Lebanon, 2000   During pregnancy: 6%
Baddoura 2001 [33] Lebanese adults (M/F ratio 0.95; mean age 40); N = 727 Current: 15%
Lebanon, 1997   Daily: 9%
Tamim 2007 [16, 18] School students (45% males; mean age 15); N = 2443 Current: 26%
Lebanon, 2002-2003   Ever: 65%
Tamim 2003 [23] University students (mean age 21; 41% males); N = 1964 Waterpipe only: 21.1%
Lebanon, 2000-2001   Cigarettes & waterpipe: 11%
Al-Haddad 2003[21] Secondary school boys (mean age 16.5); N = 600 Waterpipe: 13%
Bahrain   
Memon 2000[34] Government employees; N = 3859 Ever: 63% (men 57%; women
Kuwait, 1996   69%)
Behbehani 2004 [36] Physicians (65% males; mean age 45); N = 1529 Kuwait: 12% (M: 17%; F: 3%)
Kuwait, Bahrain, 2000   Bahrain: 6% (M: 9%; F: 3%)
Taha 2007 [19] Male students (mean age 17) N = 1240; male teachers (mean age 35); N = 142 Students: current 9%, former 4%; Teachers: current 4%, former 1%
Saudi Arabia, 2001   
AL-Turki 2006 [24] Saudi Arabia, 2005 Male medical students (mean age 21.8); N = 322 Ever: 8%
Milaat 1999 [35] Female teaching staff and employees (age range 23-62); N = 299 Current: 11%
Saudi Arabia   
Mandil 2007 [25] Students in 13 colleges (39% males; mean age 21); N = 1057 Overall: 6% (M 11%; F 3%)
UAE, 2004-2005   
Al-Mulla 2008 [20] School students with ages 13-15; N = 32356 Bahrain: 15%, Kuwait: 16%, Oman: 9%, Qatar: 14%, Saudi Arabia: 10%, UAE: 15%, Yemen: 15%
Arabic Gulf, 2001-2004   
Ward 2006 [37] Syria, 2004 Adults residing in Aleppo (45% men; mean age 35); N = 2038 Current: 12% Occasionally 11%
Maziak 2005 [38] Syria Adults residing in Aleppo (46% males; mean age 34); Overall (current): 9.1% (male: 16%, female: 4%)
  N = 1021  
Maziak 2004 [9, 2628] Aleppo University students (47% males; mean age 22); N = 587 Current: 15% (M 26%, F 5%)
Syria, 2003   Ever: 46% (M 62.6%, F 230%)
Gadalla 2003 [29] Students of secondary schools in villages; N = 627 Lifetime: 19% (M: 26%, F: 5%)
Egypt, 2002/03   
Habib 2000 [30] Males in households of a village; N = 1827 Group water pipe smoking: (males only) 10.6%
Egypt, 1997   
El Sadawy 2004[31] Males in household in Sharkia Governorate; N = 782 Group water pipe smoking (males only): 14.6%
Egypt   
Medhat 2002 [32] Male village inhabitants 5 years and older; N = 2717 Group water pipe smoking: 13% (> 30 years: 7%)
Egypt   
South Asia   
Jawaid 2008 [42] University students, Karachi (60% males; mean age 21); N = 450 Current: 33%
Pakistan, 2006-2007   Ever: 54% (M 64%; F 38%)
Nisar 2007 [44] Adults living in semi urban community (64% males); N = 157 Overall: 13%
Pakistan, 2005   
Nisar 2005 [43] Adult females in Karachi; N = 200 Overall: 41%
Pakistan   
Alam 1998 [45] Adults (in urban and rural areas (47%males); N = 9441 Overall: 6% (M 7%; F6%)
Pakistan, 1990-1994   
Primack 2008 [50] University studeents (mean age 21; 34% males); N = 647 Past 30 days: 10%
USA, 2007   Ever: 41%
Weglicki 2008 [46, 47] Arab-American and non-Arab-American youth (14-18); N = 1872 Arabs (current): 17%
USA, 2004-2005   Non Arabs (current): 11%
Rice 2007 [48] Arab and non-Arab Americans (mean age 15; 55% M); N = 1455 Arab: last 30 days 12%; regular 8%; Other: last 30 days 4%, regular 3%
USA   
Rice 2006 [11] Adolescents (mean age 15, 52% males); N = 1671 Experimentation: 27%
USA, 2001/02   Ever by age 14: 23%
   Ever by age 18: 40%
Ward 2006 [51] Active duty Air Force personnel; N = 20,673 Overall: 0.3%
USA, 2000 - 2002   
Americas   
Primack 2009 [49] School students (48% males; median age 14); N = 6,594 Past 30 days: 4%
USA, 2004/05   Ever: 6%
Europe   
Jackson 2008 [12] University students (42% males); N = 937 Ever: 38%
United Kingdom   Regular: 8%
Parna 2008 [52] 11-15 year old school students (50% males); N = 4463 Current: 21% (M 25%; F 16%)
Estonia, 2006-2007   Daily: 0.8% (M 1% F 0.3%)
Australia   
Carroll 2008 [13, 53] Arabic speakers in Australia; N not reported Current: 11%
Australia, 2004   Daily: 1%