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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of participants.

From: Dose-dependent positive association between cigarette smoking, abdominal obesity and body fat: cross-sectional data from a population-based survey

  Male Female Both sexes
N 2912 3211 6123
Mean age, year (SD) 52.6 (10.8) 53.5 (10.7) 53.1 (10.8)
Mean BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 26.6 (4.1) 25.1 (4.9) 25.8 (4.6)
   BMI categories, No (%)    
Underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) 21 (0.7) 84 (2.6) 105 (1.7)
Normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) 1073 (36.9) 1756 (54.7) 2829 (46.2)
Overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) 1325 (45.5) 909 (28.3) 2234 (36.5)
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 493 (16.9) 462 (14.4) 955 (15.6)
Mean waist circumference, cm (SD) 95.8 (11.2) 83.4 (12.5) 89.3 (13.4)
   Waist categories, No (%)    
Normal waist 1297 (44.5) 1413 (44.0) 2710 (44.3)
Medium waist 840 (28.9) 734 (22.9) 1574 (25.7)
Large waist 775 (26.6) 1064 (33.1) 1839 (30.0)
Mean bodyfat* (SD) 23.8 (6.0) 34.3 (8.2) 29.3 (9.0)
   Excess of body fat, No (%)    
No 2517 (86.4) 2355 (73.3) 4872 (79.6)
Yes 395 (13.6) 856 (26.7) 1251 (20.4)
Smoking status, No (%)    
   Non-smokers 934 (32.1) 1513 (47.1) 2447 (40.0)
   Former smoker 1122 (38.5) 894 (27.8) 2016 (32.9)
   Current smokers 856 (29.4) 804 (24.0) 1660 (27.1)
No of cigarettes per day, No (%) (n = 1515)    
1-10 cig/d 201 (27.4) 336 (43.1) 537 (35.5)
11-20 cig/d 327 (44.5) 336 (43.1) 663 (43.8)
>20 cig/d 207 (28.2) 108 (13.9) 315 (20.8)
Pack years, No (%) (n = 1472)    
0-10 UPA 152 (21.4) 235 (30.9) 387 (26.3)
10-25 UPA 236 (33.2) 271 (35.6) 507 (34.4)
25-50 UPA 214 (30.1) 204 (26.8) 418 (28.4)
>50 UPA 109 (15.3) 51 (6.7) 160 (10.9)
Highest level of education done, No (%)    
   Obligatory school 503 (17.3) 770 (24.0) 1273 (20.8)
   Apprenticeship 1110 (38.1) 1159 (36.1) 2269 (37.1)
   High school 248 (8.5) 387 (12.1) 635 (10.4)
   Master's degree 410 (14.1) 406 (12.6) 816 (13.3)
   University 641 (22.0) 489 (15.2) 1130 (18.5)
Marital status, No (%)    
   Single 449 (15.4) 558 (17.4) 1007 (16.5)
   Married 1946 (66.8) 1655 (51.5) 3601 (58.8)
   Divorced 478 (16.4) 752 (23.4) 1230 (20.1)
   Widowed 39 (1.3) 246 (7.7) 285 (4.7)
Alcohol consumption, No (%)    
   Abstinent 461 (15.8) 1194 (37.2) 1655 (27)
   Consumption not at risk 1876 (64.4) 1574 (49.0) 3450 (56.3)
   At risk consumption 575 (19.8) 443 (13.8) 1018 (16.6)
  1. * Body fat is expressed as % of total body weight
  2. SD = standard deviation, BMI = body-mass index, No = number, cig = cigarettes