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Table 4 Impact of legislation on compliance or injuries/fatalities reported by included studies on child restraints usage in vehicles

From: Policy guidance on threats to legislative interventions in public health: a realist synthesis

   Data for compliance
Study Location Pre legislation % (sampling interval before legislation) Post legislation % (sampling interval after legislation) Method used to obtain data
Collarile et al[41]. Italy, North East 74.7 (12 months) 92.5 (12 months) Self report of usage
Murrin et al[67]. USA, California 5.6 (no data) 11 (no data) Direct inspection of usage
   Data for injuries/fatalities
Study Location Pre legislation (data span used) Post legislation (data span used) Method used to obtain data
Rock et al[68]. USA, Illinois 301 (48 months) 293 (48 months) Database (Illinois Department of Transportation)
Margolis et al[69]. USA, North Carolina 2.19% (66 months) 1.82% (104 months) Database (North Carolina Collision Reports)
Desapriya et al[5]. Japan, nationwide No change reported (24 months) No change reported (24 months) Database (Traffic Bureau of National Police Agency and Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis)