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Table 1 Characteristics of participants in the validation sample and in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

From: Validation of self-reported anthropometrics in the Adventist Health Study 2

  AHS-2
(n = 95,681)
Validation Sample
(n = 911)
p value Adjusted p value for race1
Women (%) 65.0 66.7 0.28 0.98
Age (years)(SD) 58.6 (14.5) 58.3 (13.4) 0.58 0.02
Self-reported weight (kg) (SD) 76.7 (19.0) 77.8 (18.2) 0.09 0.98
Self-reported height (m) (SD) 168.2 (0.1) 167.9 (0.1) 0.46 0.54
Body Mass Index (BMI)    0.12 0.93
   Self-reported Overweight (%) (BMI 34.4 34.5   
   ≥25 kg/m2 and BMI<30 kg/m2)     
   Self-reported Obesity (%) 24.7 27.3   
   (BMI ≥30 kg/m2)     
Ever smokers (%) 20.0 17.9 0.11 0.09
Marital status     
   Married/Remarried (%) 70.9 71.6 0.66 0.002
Education    0.41 0.46
   ≤High School 22.5 21.4   
   ≤2-year college 39.5 41.7   
   ≤Doctoral degree 38.0 36.9   
Income per capita2    0.87 0.31
   Low (%) 26.4 25.9   
   Medium (%) 46.1 47.1   
   High (%) 27.5 27.0   
Race    <0.001 NA
   White (%) 65.2 46.9   
   Black (%) 26.6 46.4   
   Hispanic (%) 3.9 3.7   
   Asian (%) 3.1 1.9   
   Other (%) 1.2 1.1   
Physical activity3    0.74 0.25
   Low (%) 17.6 17.5   
   Medium (%) 30.8 31.9   
   High (%) 51.7 50.6   
   Soy consumers4 (%) 72.9 76.7 0.02 0.004
Nuts consumption    0.28 0.43
   ≤1/week (%) 30.0 30.4   
   2 to 4/week (%) 29.0 31.0   
   ≥5/week (%) 41.0 38.6   
Diet5    0.25 0.40
   Non-vegetarian (%) 41.4 43.9   
   Semi-vegetarian (%) 20.4 20.3   
   Vegetarian (%) 38.2 35.8   
  1. SD: Standard Deviation; NA: Not applicable.
  2. Continuous variables are expressed as means and (standard deviation) and compare using a T-Student test. Categorical variables are expressed as percentages and compare using Chi-square test.
  3. 1) p value was obtained through multivariate linear regression for continuous variables and logistic regression for categorical variables.
  4. 2) Low: <10,000$, medium: ≥10,000 - <30,000$, High: ≥30,000$.
  5. 3) Low: <20 minutes of non-vigorous activity; medium: ≥20 minutes of non-vigorous activity; high: ≥20 minutes of vigorous activity.
  6. 4) Soy consumers: ≥1 g of soy protein consumption per day.
  7. 5) Semi-vegetarian: low meat consumption and pesco; Vegetarian: Vegan and Lactovegetarian.