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Table 5 Multivariable logistic regression analyses assessing associations with low birthweight (n = 3650)

From: Stressful life events, social health issues and low birthweight in an Australian population-based birth cohort: challenges and opportunities in antenatal care

  < 2500 grams
No. (%)
Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
Model 1
Adj OR
(95% CI)
Model 2
Adj OR
(95% CI)s
Model 3
Adj OR
(95% CI)
Model 4
Adj OR
(95% CI)
Stressful life events/social health issues       
No issues 40 (3.3) 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref
1-2 issues 75 (4.1) 1.27 (0.9-1.9) 1.26 (0.9-1.9) 1.24 (0.8-1.8) 1.22 (0.8-1.8) 1.13 (0.8-1.7)
≥3 issues 38 (6.2) 1.94 (1.2-3.1) 1.80 (1.1-2.9) 1.77 (1.1-2.8) 1.72 (1.1-2.8) 1.44 (1.0-2.3)
Smoking status       
Non-smoker 120 (4.0) 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref
Quit in pregnancy 9 (3.0) 0.76 (0.4-1.5) 0.72 (0.36-1.4) 0.69 (0.3-1.4) 0.71 (0.4-1.4) 0.67 (0.3-1.3)
Smoking throughout pregnancy 24 (7.5) 1.97 (1.3-3.1) 1.76 (1.1-2.8) 1.75 (1.1-2.8) 1.57 (1.0-2.6) 1.82 (1.1-3.0)
Maternal country of birth       
Australia 113 (3.8) 1.00 ref   1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref
Overseas - English speaking 13 (5.8) 1.58 (0.9-2.8)   1.66 (0.9-3.0) 1.54 (0.8-2.8) 1.60 (0.9-2.9)
Overseas - Non-English speaking 27 (6.4) 1.76 (1.1-2.7)   1.85 (1.2-2.9) 1.80 (1.1-2.8) 1.90 (1.2-3.0)
Maternal pre-pregnant BMI       
Underweight (< 18.5) 11 (6.8) 1.62 (0.8-3.1)   1.37 (0.7-2.6) 1.37 (0.7-2.6) 1.39 (0.7-2.7)
Normal weight (18.5-24.9) 93 (4.3) 1.00 ref   1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref
Overweight (25-29.9) 33 (4.0) 0.92 (0.6-1.4)   0.92 (0.6-1.4) 0.94 (0.6-1.4) 0.81 (0.5-1.2)
Obese (≥30) 16 (3.1) 0.69 (0.4-1.2)   0.69 (0.4-1.2) 0.72 (0.4-1.2) 0.54 (0.3-0.9)
Educational attainment       
Completed year 12 113 (3.9) 1.00 ref   1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.0 ref
Did not complete year 12 40 (5.4) 1.46 (1.0-2.1)   1.36 (0.9-2.0) 1.30 (0.9-1.9) 1.27 (0.9-1.9)
Number of antenatal visits       
≥5 visits 133 (3.8) 1.00 ref    1.00 ref  
< 5 visits 20 (14.3) 4.23 (2.6-7.0)    3.48 (2.1-5.8)  
Risk of complications in pregnancy       
Lower risk 40 (1.8) 1.00 ref     1.00 ref
Higher risk 113 (7.9) 4.72 (3.3-6.8)     4.83 (3.3-7.0)
  1. Model 1: exposures of main interest adjusted for smoking status
  2. Model 2: exposure of main interest adjusted for smoking status, maternal country of birth, maternal BMI, maternal education.
  3. Model 3: exposure of main interest adjusted for smoking status, maternal country of birth, maternal BMI, maternal education and number of antenatal visits
  4. Model 4: exposure of main interest adjusted for smoking status, maternal country of birth, maternal BMI, maternal education and risk of complications in pregnancy