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Table 1 Internal Reliability, Sample Items, and Response Options for Multi-Item Scales

From: Sun protection and sunbathing practices among at-risk family members of patients with melanoma

   Scale Number of items α Sample Item Response Options
Psychological Factors     
   Sun protection benefits 8 .84 If people protected themselves from the sun, they wouldn't be as likely to get skin cancer 1 = strongly disagree to
6 = strongly agree
   Sunscreen barriers 7 .85 The nuisance of applying sunscreen may keep me from using it 1 = strongly disagree to
6 = strongly agree
   Sun protection behavior benefits 6 .69 How much do you think it helps to wear a hat to protect yourself from the harmful rays of the sun? 1 = not at all helpful to
5 = extremely helpful
   Benefits of sunbathing 7 .94 I feel more attractive with a tan 1 = strongly disagree to
6 = strongly agree
   Sunscreen self-efficacy 8 .88 How confident are you that you can use sunscreen while doing outdoor activities in the winter? 1 = not at all confident to
5 = extremely confident
   Photo-aging concerns 3 .84 If I were not to use sun protection, my skin would be very susceptible to wrinkling 1 = strongly disagree to
6 = strongly agree
   Comparative perceived risk 3 .67 How would you rate your chances of developing melanoma compared with other people with a similar family history of melanoma? 1 = much lower to
5 = much higher
   Perceived severity of melanoma 6 .81 How severely would developing melanoma disrupt your personal health and physical comfort? 1 = not at all disruptive to
6 = extremely disruptive
Social Influence Factors     
   Image norms for tanness 5 .62 I think to be a successful TV star, you should have a suntan 1 = strongly disagree to
6 = strongly agree
   Sun protection norms 7 .76 My friends and family wear protective clothing, like a shirt or hat, on a regular basis when in the sun 1 = strongly disagree to
6 = strongly agree
   Sunbathing norms 5 .74 My friends and family sunbathe on a regular basis 1 = strongly disagree to
6 = strongly agree