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Table 3 Association between alcohol-related mortality and urbanicity in England and Wales, 1999-2003.

From: Socioeconomic deprivation, urban-rural location and alcohol-related mortality in England and Wales

  Rate ratio (95% CI)
Urbanicity Adjusted for age Adjusted for age and socioeconomic deprivation
Males   
Village, hamlet and isolated dwelling 1 1
Town and fringe 1.51 (1.26 to 1.82) 1.19 (1.04 to 1.37)
Urban 2.37 (2.05 to 2.75) 1.35 (1.20 to 1.52)
Females   
Village, hamlet and isolated dwelling 1 1
Town and fringe 1.28 (1.10 to 1.48) 1.08 (0.95 to 1.22)
Urban 1.68 (1.50 to 1.88) 1.13 (1.01 to 1.25)
  1. Rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) adjusted for age, before and after adjustment for socioeconomic deprivation.