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Table 3 Comparisons of the profiles of mothers who visited dentist during the current pregnancy (n = 36) with those who did not (n = 88)

From: Factors associated with dental visit and barriers to utilisation of oral health care services in a sample of antenatal mothers in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia

Variables Dental visit χ2statistics (df) p value
  Yes (%)
n = 36
No (%)
n = 88
  
Age (years)     
   ≤35 25 (69.4) 67 (76.1) 0.598 (1) 0.440
   > 35 11 (30.6) 21 (23.9)   
Ethnic group     
   Malay 35 (97.2) 82 (93.2) - 0.672a
   Others 1 (2.8) 6 (6.8)   
Highest educational level     
   Secondary 19 (52.8) 38 (43.2) 3.810 (2) 0.149
   Post-secondary/Diploma 6 (16.7) 30 (34.1)   
   Tertiary 11 (30.6) 20 (22.7)   
Household income (Malaysian Ringgit)     
   <3000 25 (69.4) 61 (69.3) 0.331 (2) 0.848
   3001-5000 8 (22.2) 17 (19.3)   
   >5000 3 (8.3) 10 (11.4)   
Employment status     
   No 12 (33.3) 30 (34.1) 0.007 (1) 0.936
   Yes 24 (66.7) 58 (65.9)   
Period of gestation (weeks)     
   28-32 15 (41.7) 36 (40.9) 0.440 (2) 0.803
   33-37 12 (33.3) 34 (38.6)   
   >37 9 (25.0) 18 (20.5)   
Gravida status     
   Primigravida 10 (27.8) 24 (27.3) 0.003 (1) 0.954
   Multigravida 26 (72.2) 64 (72.7)   
Oral health status     
   Fair 13 (36.1) 25 (28.4) 0.713 (1) 0.398
   Very good/good 23 (63.9) 63 (71.6)   
Self-reported oral health problem     
   None 11 (30.6) 39 (44.3) 2.375 (2) 0.305
   One problem 12 (33.3) 27 (30.7)   
   Two or more problems 13 (36.1) 22 (25.0)   
Oral health education received before the current pregnancy     
   No 17 (47.2) 72 (81.8) 15.094 (1) <0.001
   Yes 19 (52.8) 16 (18.2)   
Aware of relationship between maternal oral health and pregnancy outcomes     
   No 6 (16.7) 42 (47.7) 10.389 (1) 0.001
   Yes 30 (83.3) 46 (52.3)   
Aware of free dental services in government clinics     
   No 11 (30.6) 42 (47.7) 3.078 (1) 0.079
   Yes 25 (69.4) 46 (52.3)   
Distance to nearest dental clinic (km)     
   ≤5 20 (55.6) 60 (68.2) 1.779 (1) 0.182
   >5 16 (44.4) 28 (31.8)   
Accessibility to the nearest dental clinic     
   Difficult 2 (5.6) 6 (6.8) 0.102 (2) 0.950
   Easy 26 (72.2) 64 (72.7)   
   Very easy 8 (22.2) 18 (20.5)   
  1. a Fisher's Exact test
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