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Table 1 Factors for estimating direct costs of seasonal influenza in the 2005/06 season

From: Modeling the cost of influenza: the impact of missing costs of unreported complications and sick leave

Direct cost   Mean Distribution Parameters  
Pharmaceutical cost Attack rate (%) 7.50 Beta b α = 31.91 β = 393.5
  Cost per pack (USD) 7.4    
  Number of packs 1.00 Gamma c k = 6.83 Θ = 0.15
  Population (2005/06) 4 640 219    
Outpatient costa Adjusted influenza+pneumonia cost 3 415 900 Gamma c k = 25.00 Θ = 13.66e3
  Percentage in private clinics 20.00 Beta b α = 12.60 β = 50.40
Inpatient cost Number of influenza hospitalization 446 Gamma c k = 43.02 Θ = 10.37
  Number of pneumonia hospitalization 1 382 Gamma c k = 35.48 Θ = 38.95
  Number of other hospitalization 890 Gamma c k = 148.6 Θ = 5.99
  DRG points for influenza hospitalization 0.59 Gamma c k = 25.00 Θ = 0.02
  DRG points for pneumonia hospitalization 1.47 Gamma c k = 25.00 Θ = 0.06
  DRG points for other hospitalization 1.00 Gamma c k = 25.00 Θ = 0.04
Indirect cost      
Sick leave Recovery period for influenza (days) 5.00 Normal σ = 0.50  
  Recovery period for other airway disease (days) 7.00 Normal σ = 0.50  
  Percentage with IA employers 50.0 Normal σ = 1.67  
  Percentage with non-IA employers 40.0 Normal σ = 2.36  
  Percentage self-employed 10.0 Normal σ = 1.67  
  Days prior to sick leave for non-IA employees 2.50 Uniform range [2.00: 3.00]  
  Days prior to sick leave for IA employees 4.00 Normal σ = 0.50  
  1. a Outpatient cost includes costs from GP visits, emergency room services and medical specialist visits.
  2. b f ( x ; α , β ) = 1 B ( α , β ) x α 1 ( 1 x ) β 1 , where B is the Beta function.
  3. c f ( x ; k , θ ) = x k 1 e x / θ θ k Γ ( k ) , where Γ is the Gamma function.