# Table 1 Factors for estimating direct costs of seasonal influenza in the 2005/06 season

Direct cost   Mean Distribution Parameters
Pharmaceutical cost Attack rate (%) 7.50 Beta b α = 31.91 β = 393.5
Cost per pack (USD) 7.4
Number of packs 1.00 Gamma c k = 6.83 Θ = 0.15
Population (2005/06) 4 640 219
Outpatient costa Adjusted influenza+pneumonia cost 3 415 900 Gamma c k = 25.00 Θ = 13.66e3
Percentage in private clinics 20.00 Beta b α = 12.60 β = 50.40
Inpatient cost Number of influenza hospitalization 446 Gamma c k = 43.02 Θ = 10.37
Number of pneumonia hospitalization 1 382 Gamma c k = 35.48 Θ = 38.95
Number of other hospitalization 890 Gamma c k = 148.6 Θ = 5.99
DRG points for influenza hospitalization 0.59 Gamma c k = 25.00 Θ = 0.02
DRG points for pneumonia hospitalization 1.47 Gamma c k = 25.00 Θ = 0.06
DRG points for other hospitalization 1.00 Gamma c k = 25.00 Θ = 0.04
Indirect cost
Sick leave Recovery period for influenza (days) 5.00 Normal σ = 0.50
Recovery period for other airway disease (days) 7.00 Normal σ = 0.50
Percentage with IA employers 50.0 Normal σ = 1.67
Percentage with non-IA employers 40.0 Normal σ = 2.36
Percentage self-employed 10.0 Normal σ = 1.67
Days prior to sick leave for non-IA employees 2.50 Uniform range [2.00: 3.00]
Days prior to sick leave for IA employees 4.00 Normal σ = 0.50
1. a Outpatient cost includes costs from GP visits, emergency room services and medical specialist visits.
2. b $f\left(x;\alpha ,\beta \right)=\frac{1}{B\left(\alpha ,\beta \right)}{x}^{\alpha -1}{\left(1-x\right)}^{\beta -1}$, where B is the Beta function.
3. c $f\left(x;k,\theta \right)={x}^{k-1}\frac{{e}^{-x/\theta }}{{\theta }^{k}\Gamma \left(k\right)}$, where Γ is the Gamma function. 