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Table 4 Hierarchical logistic regressions on the three variable level of individuals clustered within schools and within housing areas, presenting odds ratios (OR), 95% CIs, and significance levels of participants with many psychosomatic and musculoskeletal symptoms and participants who were classified as depressed, in relation to neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, sex, parental unemployment, living conditions, ethnicity, and subjective SES.

From: Social capital in relation to depression, musculoskeletal pain, and psychosomatic symptoms: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

  Psychosomatic symptoms Musculoskeletal pain Depression
  OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Neighbourhood social capital       
High Ref   Ref   Ref  
Medium 1.41 (1.14-1.75) 0.002 1.30 (1.03-1.66) 0.030 1.46 (1.21-1.75) < 0.001
Low 2.29 (1.81-2.90) < 0.001 1.74 (1.35-2.26) < 0.001 2.36 (1.88-2.96) < 0.001
General social trust       
High Ref   Ref   Ref  
Medium 1.51 (1.24-1.85) < 0.001 1.41 (1.12-1.77) 0.004 1.54 (1.29-1.85) < 0.001
Low 3.20 (2.59-3.97) < 0.001 2.51 (1.89-3.33) < 0.001 3.34 (2.75-4.06) < 0.001
Sex       
Boy Ref   Ref   Ref  
Girl 3.77 (3.21-4.44) < 0.001 1.90 (1.58-2.29) < 0.001 2.59 (2.24-3.00) < 0.001
Parental unemployment       
Both parents working Ref   Ref   Ref  
At least one parent unemployed 1.28 (1.07-1.53) 0.007 1.24 (1.02-1.50) 0.031 1.26 (1.10-1.45) 0.001
Living conditions       
Single-family house Ref   Ref   Ref  
Multi-family house 0.98 (0.81-1.17) 0.787 0.99 (0.81-1.20) 0.897 0.97 (0.83-1.14) 0.732
Ethnicity       
Scandinavian ethnicity Ref   Ref   Ref  
Non-Scandinavian ethnicity 0.86 (0.72-1.03) 0.104 0.88 (0.72-1.08) 0.230 0.93 (0.79-1.09) 0.344
Subjective SES       
High Ref   Ref   Ref  
Medium 1.00 (0.75-1.33) 0.983 1.03 (0.78-1.35) 0.851 0.88 (0.70-1.10) 0.273
Low 2.00 (1.50-2.68) < 0.001 1.70 (1.21-2.39) 0.002 1.96 (1.52-2.51) < 0.001