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Table 3 Multilevel analysis1.

From: Social capital in relation to depression, musculoskeletal pain, and psychosomatic symptoms: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

  Many psychosomatic symptoms   Many symptoms of musculoskeletal pain   Depression  
Individual level (Level 1), ordinary regression model
  Log likelihood = 6366.60 Log likelihood = 5422.22 Log likelihood = 7430.14
Neighbourhood social capital OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
High Ref   Ref   Ref  
Medium 1.39 (1.14-1.68) 0.001 1.31 (1.06-1.62) 0.013 1.52 (1.28-1.81) < 0.001
Low 2.49 (2.03-3.06) < 0.001 1.92 (1.53-2.41) < 0.001 2.79 (2.31-3.35) < 0.001
General social trust       
High Ref   Ref   Ref  
Medium 1.48 (1.20-1.83) < 0.001 1.40 (1.11-1.76) 0.004 1.48 (1.24-1.78) < 0.001
Low 3.39 (2.73-4.21) < 0.001 2.64 (2.08-3.35) < 0.001 3.38 (2.80-4.10) < 0.001
Individual level within school, 2-level analysis
  QICC 2 = 6376.60 QICC = 5432.22 QICC = 7440.14
Neighbourhood social capital OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
High Ref   Ref   Ref  
Medium 1.39 (1.13-1.70) 0.002 1.31 (1.04-1.64) 0.019 1.52 (1.26-1.84) < 0.001
Low 2.49 (2.03-3.06) < 0.001 1.92 (1.53-2.40) < 0.001 2.79 (2.23-3.47) < 0.001
General social trust       
High Ref   Ref   Ref  
Medium 1.48 (1.26-1.74) < 0.001 1.40 (1.11-1.77) 0.005 1.48 (1.26-1.74) < 0.001
Low 3.39 (2.83-4.05) < 0.001 2.64 (2.01-3.46) < 0.001 3.38 (2.87-3.98) < 0.001
Individual level within housing area, 2-level analysis
  QICC = 5939.22 QICC = 5018.40 QICC = 6949.51
Neighbourhood social capital OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
High Ref   Ref   Ref  
Medium 1.42 (1.19-1.69) < 0.001 1.32 (1.01-1.74) 0.046 1.49 (1.31-1.71) < 0.001
Low 2.52 (2.05-3.11) < 0.001 1.96 (1.51-2.54) < 0.001 2.73 (2.30-3.24) < 0.001
General social trust       
High Ref   Ref   Ref  
Medium 1.52 (1.25-1.84) < 0.001 1.39 (1.12-1.73) 0.003 1.56 (1.24-1.95) < 0.001
Low 3.40 (2.77-4.18) < 0.001 2.63 (2.04-3.39) < 0.001 3.49 (2.82-4.31) < 0.001
3-level analysis       
  QICC = 5939.22 QICC = 5018.40 QICC = 6949.51
Neighbourhood social capital OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
High Ref   Ref   Ref  
Medium 1.42 (1.15-1.75) 0.001 1.32 (1.04-1.68) 0.021 1.49 (1.23-1.81) < 0.001
Low 2.52 (2.02-3.15) < 0.001 1.96 (1.54-2.49) < 0.001 2.73 (2.20-3.40) < 0.001
General social trust       
High Ref   Ref   Ref  
Medium 1.52 (1.26-1.82) < 0.001 1.39 (1.11-1.75) 0.005 1.56 (1.31-1.85) < 0.001
Low 3.40 (2.82-4.11) < 0.001 2.63 (2.00-3.46) < 0.001 3.49 (2.89-4.20) < 0.001
  1. 1 The individual level is the ordinary logistic regression. Individuals in school and in housing area are hierarchical analyses controlling for non-independent associations of school and housing area, respectively. The 3-level hierarchical analysis considers individuals nested in schools which are nested in housing area.
  2. 2 Corrected Quasi Likelihood under Independence Model Criterion (QICC)