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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by region

From: Geographical variation in cardiovascular incidence: results from the British Women's Heart and Health Study

  South England Midlands/
Wales
North England Scotland p-value^^
Number of towns 7 4 9 3  
Contacted 2216 1199 2873 1008  
Responders at baseline
(% of invited)
1319 (60%) 770 (64%) 1650 (57%) 547 (54%) < 0.0005
Responders in 2003
(% baseline responders§)
1141 (87%) 633 (82%) 1439 (87%) 464 (85%) 0.09
Responders in 2007
(% baseline responders§)
846 (72%) 450 (68%) 1037 (71%) 352 (74%) 0.2
Classical and potential risk factors for CVD (baseline)
Age (mean (SD)) 69.3 (5.5) 69.5 (5.6) 69.6 (5.5) 68.9 (5.3) 0.06
Smoking status      < 0.0005
   Never 817 (62%) 418 (54%) 864 (52%) 272 (50%)  
   Ex 389 (30%) 244 (32%) 584 (36%) 184 (34%)  
   Current 108 (8%) 101 (13%) 195 (12%) 91 (17%)  
   Missing 5 (0.4%) 7 (0.9%) 7 (0.4%) 0 (0%)  
Diabetes      0.07
   Yes (SR/RR) 67 (5.1%) 49 (6.4%) 86 (5.2%)^ 31 (5.6%)  
   Yes (fasting glucose only) 43 (3.3%) 31 (4.0%) 74 (4.5%) 36 (6.6%)  
   No 1209 (92%) 690 (90%) 1490 (90%) 480 (88%)  
Systolic BP (sitting, mm/Hg)* 153.2 (23.9) 155.4 (23.9) 154.6 (24.0) 153.3 (25.4) 0.20
   Missing 114 (9%) 150 (20%) 141 (9%) 16 (3%)  
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.2 (1.1) 4.2 (1.1) 4.1 (1.1) 4.1 (1.1) 0.21
   Missing 155 (12%) 186 (24%) 161 (10%) 22 (4%)  
Waist circumference (mm)* 861.0 (119.3) 868.0 (120.7) 861.9 (122.9) 860.1 (125.8) 0.63
   Missing 84 (6%) 126 (18%) 123 (8%) 3 (1%)  
Obesity      0.29
   Yes 430 (33%) 341 (44%) 565 (34%) 163 (30%)  
   No 813 (62%) 296 (39%) 967 (59%) 382 (70%)  
   Missing 76 (6%) 133 (17%) 118 (7%) 2 (< 1%)  
Leg length (mm) 763.5 (41.4) 753.4 (42.9) 756.1 (40.2) 752.2 (39.5) < 0.0005
   Missing 75 (6%) 133 (2%) 118 (7%) 2 (< 1%)  
Family history of CVD** 750 (57%) 431 (56%) 893 (54%) 300 (55%) 0.49
Alcohol intake      < 0.0005
   Most days 253 (19%) 127 (17%) 276 (17%) 58 (11%)  
   Socially$ 819 (62%) 439 (57%) 970 (59%) 319 (58%)  
   Never 166 (13%) 133 (17%) 239 (15%) 109 (20%)  
   Missing 81 (6%) 71 (9%) 165 (10%) 61 (11%)  
Physically inactive$ 739 (56%) 510 (66%) 935 (57%) 285 (52%) < 0.0005
   Missing 149 (11%) 90 (9%) 214 (13%) 97 (18%)  
Limited fruit/veg intake$$ 33 (2%) 44 (4%) 93 (3%) 40 (4%) < 0.0005
   Missing 129 (10%) 83 (11%) 242 (15%) 90 (17%)  
Carstairs index based on GB population data (mean (SD)) -0.9 (2.4) 0.6 (2.7) 0.5 (3.3) 2.67 (3.4) < 0.0005
   Missing 24 (2%) 1 (< 1%) 8 (1%) 36 (7%)  
Life-course SEP
(median (25th, 75th centiles))
4 (2, 5) 4 (3, 6) 4 (2, 6) 5 (3, 6) < 0.0005
   Missing£ 305 (23%) 181 (24%) 452 (27%) 162 (30%)  
CVD medication 487 (37%) 252 (33%) 673 (41%) 262 (48%) < 0.0005
Non-missing for all covariates 700 (53%) 382 (50%) 881 (53%) 293 (54%) 0.3
  1. Note: Figures given in parentheses are percentages of the baseline responders unless otherwise stated
  2. § Alive at time of mailing
  3. * Mean of measurements
  4. ** Sibling or parent had stroke or heart attack (self-report)
  5. $ Those answering weekends only/once or twice a month/special occasions
  6. $ Response to nurse-led examination question (not questionnaire)
  7. $$ Missing where either summer fruit intake or winter fruit intake response is missing.
  8. £ Missing at least one of the ten components of SEP. Missingness of individual components ranged from 2.5-14.4%.
  9. ^ Includes one individual with diabetes indicated by diabetic medicines only
  10. ^^ From chi-squared test for binary variables, linear regression for continuous variables, and ordered logistic regression for ordinal variables (life-course SEP). Analyses carried out on non-missing values only. Analysis of diabetes variable combined all "yes" categories.