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Table 3 Results of measured outcomes and direction of effect reported at the end of the study: 1 year follow-up or less, and 3-years or more (1990-2009)

From: Reduction of diabetes risk in routine clinical practice: are physical activity and nutrition interventions feasible and are the outcomes from reference trials replicable? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year, reference #
follow-up time
Reduction in diabetes incidence
(%, OR, RR)
Incidence of diabetes Improvement of FPG or 2 h PG in mmol/L % participants achieving ≥ 5% weight loss Mean weight loss
Kg
Mean reduction in WC (cm)
Results at one year or earlier
McTigue, 2009 [84]
1 year
NR NR NR 27% of intervention vs. 6% of controls achieved 7% weight loss -5.2 Kg intervention vs.
+0.2 Kg control
NR
Bo, 2007 [48]
1 year
Adjusted
OR = 0.23 (0.06-0.85)
1.8% in intervention vs. 7.2% in controls -0.26 mmol/L FPG intervention vs. +0.07 controls
OR for IFG = 0.22 (0.13-0.39)
  -0.75 Kg in intervention vs. +1.63 Kg in controls -2.55 cm in intervention vs. +1.96 cm in controls
Laatikainen, 2007 [83]
1 year
23% based on weight loss; 40% based on WC reduction 2.2% of IGT or IFG participants -0.14 mmol/L NR -2.5 Kg -4.2 cm
Kosaka, 2005 [49]
1 year
NR NR NR NR -2.5 Kg in intervention vs.-0.39 Kg in control NR
Absetz, 2005 [82]
1 year
NR 6% of those meeting 4-5 goals vs. 3% of those meeting 3 or fewer goals +0.1 mmol/L ± 0.6 12% achieved 5% weight loss -0.8 Kg ± 4.5 Kg -1.6 cm ± 4.8 cm
Torgerson, 2004 [80]
1 year
NR NR NR 72.8% in medication + lifestyle vs. 45.1% in placebo + lifestyle -10.6 Kg in medication+lifestyle vs.
-6.2 Kg in placebo+ lifestyle
-9.6 cm in medication+lifestyle vs.
-7.0 cm in placebo+ lifestyle
Dyson, 1997 [50]
1 year
NR NR -0.1 mol/L in intervention vs.-0.2 mmol/L in control NR -0.4 Kg in intervention vs. -0.2 Kg in control NR
Whittemore, 2009 [78]
6 months
NR N/A Reported no difference between groups, but no data shown 25% interv vs. 11% control   -0.5 cm intervention vs.
-0.1 cm control
Greaves, 2008 [86]
6 months
NR N/A NR 23.6% interv vs.7.2% control Mean difference 1.3 Kg Mean difference -1.6 cm
Barclay, 2008 [87]
6 months
NR N/A -0.02 mmol/L FPG intervention vs. +0.25 mmol/L control at 6 months   -2.73 Kg intervention vs.
-0.3 Kg control
-6.01 cm intervention vs.
-1.18 cm control
Pagoto, 2008 [14]
4 months
NR N/A NR 30% achieved 7% weight loss -5.5 Kg in whole sample and -6.5 Kg in participants without comorbidities at 4 months NR
(Laatikainen) Kilkkinen, 2007 [75]
3 months
NR N/A No change NR -2.4 Kg -3.2 cm
Results at 6, 4 or 3 years
Eriksson, 1991 [79]
6 years
RR = 0.37 (0.20-0.68) 10% prevalence in intervention vs. 28.6% prevalence in controls 52.2% normalized 2 hr OGTT in intervention vs. 35.7% normalized in IGT non-intervention controls NR -3.3 Kg vs. +0.2 Kg NR
Kosaka, 2005 [49]
4 years
67.4% reduction in intervention group 3% intervention vs. 9.3% in control 53.8% intervention vs. 33.9% in control NR -2.2 Kg in intervention vs.
-0.39 Kg in control
NR
Torgerson, 2004 [80]
4 years
Total intervention group 37.3%;
IGT patients 45%
6.2% in medication + lifestyle vs. 9% in placebo + lifestyle 0.1 mmol/L in medication + lifestyle vs. 0.2 mmol/L in placebo + lifestyle 52.8% vs. 37.3% -5.8 Kg in medication vs.
3 Kg in placebo
w-6.4 cm in medication + lifestyle vs. -4.4 cm in placebo+ lifestyle
Absetz, 2009 [77]
3 years
NR 12% of those with IGT at baseline vs. 1.2% of those with normal FPG at baseline 0.0 ± 0.8 mmol/L NR -1 Kg ± 5.6 Kg +0.1 cm ± 6.4 cm
  1. NR = not reported N/A = not applicable