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Table 1 All-cause univariate risk factor analysis for infant mortality in the Agincourt sub-district, 1992-2007

From: Young and vulnerable: Spatial-temporal trends and risk factors for infant mortality in rural South Africa (Agincourt), 1992-2007

Factor n IRR p-value signif
Temporal     
1 year continuous 31,804 1.23 <0.001 *
5 year period 31,804    
   1992-1996 10,744 1.00   
   1997-2001 10,624 4.61 <0.001 *
   2002-2006 10,436 10.76 <0.001 *
Demographic     
Male gender 31,804 1.86 0.006 *
Mother refugee status 29,068    
   South African citizen 18,746 1.00   
   Mozambican origin 10,322 1.12 0.638  
Breast feeding and birth weight     
Breast fed 23,890/25,697 0.21 <0.001 *
Breast fed (diarrhoea & malnutrition) 23,890/25,697 0.38 0.001 *
Increasing birth weight (kilograms) 15,235β 0.42 <0.001 *
Maternal     
Mother Mozambican in-migrated post 1992 α 10,322 4.89 0.004 *
Mother status 31,041    
   Mother in same household 27,076 1.00   
   Mother not in household 2,488 0.01 <0.001 *
   Mother death 1,477 5.79 <0.001 *
Mother residency status     
   Permanent (> = 6 months in site) 28,852 1.00   
   Migrant 25,200 0.45 0.059 #
   Other 2,035 0.36 0.067 #
Increasing number of months resident during the previous 12 months 28,962 1.11 0.001 *
Mother died in child's first year 91/31,804 65.72 <0.001 *
Mother age at pregnancy 27,981 0.99 0.595  
Mother education 16,971    
   None or primary 6511 1.00   
   Secondary 9561 0.90 0.677  
   Tertiary 899 0.13 <0.001 *
Paternal     
Father died in child's first year 59/31,804 0.69 0.834  
Father died before birth 57/31,804 0.98 0.993  
Household head 26,034    
   Male gender 16,625 0.86 0.331  
   Mozambican origin 9,972 1.04 0.808  
   Age (years) 25,660    
   18-29 2,995 1.00   
   30-49 13,143 0.93 0.785  
   50-64 6,486 1.39 0.243  
   65+ 3,036 1.43 0.272  
Household morbidity and mortality     
Cumulative number of household deaths in year of birth (continuous) 31,804 14.64 <0.001 *
None 26,444 1.00   
1 4,048 35.51 <0.001 *
2-3 1,232 109.34 <0.001 *
4+ 80 131.47 <0.001 *
Number of household admissions in year of birth (continuous) 2,895 1.55 0.093 #
None 2,392 1.00   
1-2 402 1.51 0.464  
3+ 101 17.80 0.041 *
Fertility     
Birth parity (continuous) 25,083 1.22 0.170  
   1 25,083 1.00   
   2-3 16,526 2.32 0.001 *
   4+ 7,663 0.55 0.313  
Preceding birth interval 8,421 1.05 0.001 *
Post birth interval 7,199 0.51 <0.001 *
Previous birth stillborn 318/27,981 16.71 <0.001 *
Previous sibling died 945/27,981 7.48 0.001 *
Preceding interval sibling death 413 1.23 0.413  
Mother attended antenatal clinic 24,928 0.06 <0.001 *
Number of antenatal clinic visits 17,305 0.84 <0.001 *
Socio-economic status of household     
SES absolute score (quintiles) 9,397    
   Most poor 1,584 1.00   
   Very poor 1,801 0.81 0.540  
   Poor 1,971 0.91 0.780  
   Less poor 2,019 0.91 0.780  
   Least poor 2,022 0.98 0.940  
Food security status of household     
Predicted food shortage in coming year 3,481    
   Same amount of food 1,122 1.00   
   More food 377 0.31 0.091 #
   Less food 1,982 1.24 0.597  
Distance to nearest health facility     
Minimum distance to health facility (straight-line) from household 25,749    
   < 5 km 24,023 1.00   
   > = 5 km 1,726 1.18 0.607  
Minimum distance to health facility (network) from village centroid 31,804    
   < 5 km 1,220 1.00   
   > = 5 km 30,584 1.28 0.684  
Climatic     
Elevation (meters) - rainfall proxy 30,583    
   350-399 2,554 1.00   
   400-449 14,202 0.43 0.072 #
   450-499 4,120 0.25 0.009 *
   500-549 7,202 0.17 <0.001 *
   550-599 2,505 0.46 0.226  
  1. Total sample size (n = 31,804)
  2. α: infectious and parasitic deaths only
  3. β: birth weight data only available for this number of infants
  4. * significant at the 5% level; # significant at the 10% level