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Table 2 Ethical framework for public health by Kass [5]

From: An overview of ethical frameworks in public health: can they be supportive in the evaluation of programs to prevent overweight?

1. What are the public health goals of the proposed program?
2. How effective is the program in achieving its stated goals?
3. What are the known or potential burdens* of the program?
4. Can burdens be minimised? Are there alternative approaches?
5. Is the program implemented fairly?**
6. How can the benefits and burdens of a program be fairly balanced?
  1. *Burdens refer to risks for privacy and confidentiality, liberty and self-determination, and justice.
  2. **Fair implementation refers to the ethical principle of distributive justice.