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Table 3 Multivariate logistic regression models: Odds ratios (OR) for poor self-rated health in each model, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the final model

From: Neighbourhood characteristics, social capital and self-rated health - A population-based survey in Sweden

    (1.i) (1.i-1.ii) (1i-2) (1.i-3.i) (1.i-3.ii) (1.i-4)   (1.i-5)
    OR OR OR OR OR OR OR (95%CI)
  Sex Women (ref)         
   Men 1.3 1.5 * 1.5 * 1.5 * 1.5 * 1.5 * 1.4 (0.9-2.1)
  Age 18-34 (ref)         
   35-49 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.7 (0.8-3.6)
   50-64 1.8 1.9 1.8 2.3 * 2.4 * 2.4 * 2.0 (1.0-4.2)
   65-79 2.1 2.3 * 2.3 * 2.9 * 3.3 ** 3.3 ** 2.7 * (1.1-6.6)
   80-84 4.2 ** 4.5 ** 4.2 ** 5.6 ** 6.8 *** 6.7 *** 5.6 *** (2.0-15.7)
  Education High (ref)         
   Medium 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.1 (0.7-1.9)
1.i Individual factors - Socio-demographic factors   Low 2.0 * 2.1 * 1.9 * 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.5 (0.8-2.6)
  Country of birth Sweden (ref)         
   Other Nordic countries 2.3 * 2.6 * 2.7 ** 2.6 * 2.4 * 2.5 * 2.5 * (1.2-5.5)
   Outside the Nordic countries 2.3 ** 2.2 ** 2.1 * 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.4 (0.7-2.6)
  Family structure Living with partner and children under 18 years (ref)         
   Single, not living with children under 18 years 2.1 * 2.5 ** 2.5 ** 2.4 * 2.5 * 2.5 * 2.3 * (1.1-4.6)
   Single, living with children under 18 years 2.1 2.1 2.3 * 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.8 (0.8-4.1)
   Living with partner and not with children under 18 years 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 (0.9-3.4)
   Living with other adult 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 (0.2-3.2)
  Economc stress No problem with current expenses the last 12 months (ref)         
   Problems 1-12 months 2.9 *** 2.7 *** 2.9 *** 2.7 *** 2.6 *** 2.6 *** 2.6 *** (1.6-4.2)
  Employment status Employee (ref)         
   Unemployed 1.3 12.2 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.0 (0.4-2.3)
   Disability pensioner (retired) 13.0 *** 11.2 *** 12.0 *** 11.2 *** 11.5 *** 11.5 *** 11.4 *** (6.4-20.1)
   Other 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 (0.7-2.5)
  Critical life events No critical life event (ref)         
   Critical life event   1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 (0.9-1.9)
1.ii Individual Factors - Percieved life events Accidents No accident (ref)         
    Been involved in accident 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.3 (0.7-2.4)
  Violence (assaults) Not been exposed to violence (ref)         
   Been exposed to violence   1.9 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 (0.7-7.0)
  Burdensome domestic work Does not experience domestic work as burdensome (ref)         
   Experiences domestic work as burdensome   2.4 *** 2.3 *** 2.4 *** 2.3 *** 2.3 *** 2.2 *** (1.5-3.3)
  Alcohol habits (AUDIT) No risky alcohol habits(ref)         
   Risky alcohol habits    0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 (0.3-1.5)
  Smoking habits Not daily smoker (ref)         
   Daily smoker    1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.0 (0.6-1.7)
2 Health behaviour Physical activity Physically active (ref)         
   Physically inactive    2.2 *** 2.2 *** 2.1 *** 2.2 *** 2.1 *** (1.4-3.3)
  Body Mass Index Normal weight (ref)         
   Underweight    2.3 2.3 2.1 2.1 1.9 (0.5-7.5)
   Overweight    1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 (0.6-1.5)
   Obesity    0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 (0.5-1.6)
  Housing area City centre (ref)         
   Residential     2.0 2.1 * 2.0 1.9 (0.9-4.1)
3.i Neighbourhood antecedent factors - Structural factors   Flats     1.9 * 1.8 * 1.7 1.8 * (1.0-3.2)
   Outlying     2.5 * 2.7 ** 2.6 ** 2.5 ** (1.3-5.1)
  Home ownership Own the dwelling (ref)         
   rent the dwelling     1.6 1.4 1.5 1.4 (0.8-2.6)
  Residential stability 6 years or longer (ref)         
   1-5 years     1.7 * 1.7 * 1.7 * 1.7 * (1.1-2.6)
   Shorter than 1 year     1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 (0.5-2.4)
  Dwelling satisfaction Enjoy present dwelling (ref)         
   Do not enjoy present dwelling      0.9 0.9 0.8 (0.4-1.5)
3.ii Neighbourhood antecedent factors - Percieved features Satisfaction with dwelling surroundings Enjoy present dwelling surroundings (ref)         
   Do not enjoy present dwelling surroundings      1.4 1.4 1.4 (0.7-2.5)
  Environmental problems in dwellings No problems (ref)         
   1-3 problems      1.3 1.3 1.4 (0.8-2.3)
  Environmental problems in dwelling surroundings No problems (ref)         
   1-3 problems      1.2 1.2 1.2 (0.8-1.8)
  Environmental problems in housing area No problems (ref)         
   1-3 problems      1.4 1.4 1.4 (0.9-2.1)
  Trust Good trust (ref)         
   Not good trust       1.2 1.3 (0.8-2.1)
4 Social coheision Conectedness Good conectedness (ref)         
   Not good conectedness       0.8 0.7 (0.5-1.1)
  Unafraid Unafraid of going out (ref)         
   Afraid       1.1 1.0 (0.7-1.6)
  Personal support Has personal support (ref)         
   Does not have personal support        2.2 ** (1.3-3.9)
5 Social capital Pride Has been made proud (ref)         
   Has not been made proud        2.3 *** (1.5-3.4)
  Participation Participates in associations (ref)         
   Does not participate        1.2 (0.8-1.8)
  1. Level of significance for OR: *(p < 0.05) **(p < 0.01) ***(p < 0.001)