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Table 2 Distribution of respondents by explanatory variables (n, %), and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of bivariate associations between explanatory variables and the outcome of poor self-rated health

From: Neighbourhood characteristics, social capital and self-rated health - A population-based survey in Sweden

    Respondents (N = 2346)
    n % OR (95% CI)
  Sex Women (ref) 1259 53.7   
   Men 1087 46.3 1.1 (0.8-1.5)
  Age 18-34 (ref) 498 21.2   
   35-49 558 23.8 2.0 * (1.1-3.6)
   50-64 632 26.9 3.0 *** (1.7-5.3)
   65-79 540 23.0 2.2 ** (1.2-4.0)
   80-84 118 5.0 5.1 *** (2.5-10.3)
  Education High (ref) 761 32.4   
   Medium 971 41.4 2.1 ** (1.3-3.3)
1.i Individual factors - Socio-demographic factors   Low 614 26.2 3.2 *** (2.0-5.1)
  Country of birth Sweden (ref) 2114 90.1   
   Other Nordic countries 67 2.9 3.4 *** (1.8-6.5)
   Outside the Nordic countries 165 7.0 2.3 ** (1.4-3.7)
  Family structure Living with partner and children under 18 years (ref) 530 22.6   
   Single, not living with children under 18 years 518 22.1 2.9 *** (1.8-4.9)
   Single, living with children under 18 years 132 5.6 3.1 ** (1.6-6.2)
   Living with partner and not with children under 18 years 1053 44.9 1.6 (1.0-2.7)
   Living with other adult 113 4.8 0.4 (0.1-1.9)
  Economic stress No problem with current bills the last 12 months (ref) 1952 83.2   
   Problems 1-12 months 394 16.8 2.9 *** (2.0-4.1)
  Employment status Employee (ref) 1093 46.6   
   Unemployed 135 5.8 1.9 (0.9-4.2)
   Disability pensioner (retired) 121 5.2 20.6 *** (12.5-33.8)
   Other 997 42.5 2.2 *** (1.5-3.4)
  Critical life events No critical life event (ref) 1025 43.7   
1.ii Individual Factors - Percieved life events   Critical life event 1321 56.3 1.6 ** (1.2-2.1)
  Accidents No accident (ref) 2157 91.9   
   Been involved in accident 189 8.1 1.3 (0.7-2.2)
  Violence (assaults) Not been exposed to violence (ref) 2304 98.2   
   Been exposed to violence 42 1.8 1.9 (0.7-4.8)
  Burdensome domestic work Does not experience domestic work as burdensome (ref) 1202 51.2   
   Experiences domestic work as burdensome 1144 48.8 2.1 *** (1.5-2.9)
  Alcohol habits (AUDIT) No risky alcohol habits(ref) 2202 93.9   
   Risky alcohol habits 144 6.1 0.9 (0.4-1.8)
  Smoking habits Not daily smoker (ref) 1997 85.1   
   Daily smoker 349 14.9 1.9 ** (1.3-2.7)
2 Health behaviour       
  Physical activity Physically active (ref) 1958 83.5   
   Physically inactive 388 16.5 2.7 *** (1.9-3.8)
  Body Mass Index Normal weight (ref) 1201 51.2   
   Underweight 25 1.1 3.2 * (1.1-9.5)
   Overweight 831 35.4 1.3 (0.9-1.9)
   Obesity 289 12.3 1.8 * (1.1-2.8)
  Housing area City centre (ref) 519 22.1   
3.i Neighbour hood anteceden t factors - Structural factors   Residential 532 22.7 1.0 (0.6-1.9)
   Flats 779 33.2 2.8 *** (1.7-4.5)
   Outlying 516 22.0 1.8 ** (1.1-3.2)
  Home ownership Own the dwelling (ref) 1046 44.6   
   Rent the dwelling 1300 55.4 2.0 *** (1.4-2.9)
  Residential stability 6 years or longer (ref) 1377 58.7   
   1-5 years 725 30.9 1.3 (0.9-1.8)
   Shorter than 1 year 244 10.4 0.8 (0.4-1.5)
  Dwelling satisfaction Enjoy present dwelling (ref) 2134 91.0   
3.ii Neighbour hood anteceden t factors - Percieved features   Do not enjoy present dwelling 212 9.0 1.9 ** (1.2-2.9)
  Satisfaction with dwelling surroundings Enjoy present dwelling surroundings (ref) 2092 89.2   
   Do not enjoy present dwelling surroundings 254 10.8 2.4 *** (1.6-3.6)
  Environmental problems in dwellings No problems (ref) 2029 86.5   
   1-3 problems 317 13.5 1.9 ** (1.3-2.8)
  Environmental problems in dwelling surroundings No problems (ref) 1187 50.6   
   1-3 problems 1159 49.4 1.5 * (1.1-2.1)
  Environmental problems in housing area No problems (ref) 1621 69.1   
   1-3 problems 725 30.9 2.1 *** (1.5-2.9)
  Trust Good trust (ref) 1949 83.1   
   Not good trust 397 16.9 2.0 *** (1.4-2.8)
4 Social coheision       
  Conectedness Good conectedness (ref) 1231 52.5   
   Not good conectedness 1115 47.5 1.2 (0.9-1.6)
  Unafraid Unafraid of going out (ref) 1824 77.7   
   Afraid 522 22.3 1.6 * (1.1-2.2)
5 Social capital Personal support Has personal support (ref) 2222 93.2   
   Does not have personal support 161 6.8 4.6 *** (2.9-7.2)
  Pride Has been made proud (ref) 1882 80.2   
   Has not been made proud 464 19.8 2.7 *** (1.9-3.8)
  Participation Participates in associations (ref) 980 41.8   
   Does not participate 1366 58.2 1.9 ** (1.3-2.7)
  1. Level of significance for OR: *(p < 0.05) **(p < 0.01) ***(p < 0.001)