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Table 1 Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome stratified by gender, age, BMI, laboratory tests, socio-demographic and the life-style characteristics

From: Metabolic syndrome in Russian adults: associated factors and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes

Socio-demographic and the life-style characteristics Men Women P-value2
  N (%) MetS, % with (95% CI)1 N (%) MetS, % with (95% CI)1  
Age, years      0.002
   18-29 515 (26.9) 1.75 (0.9-3.4) 347 (21.2) 3.8 (2.1-6.5)  
   30-39 352 (18.4) 6.25 (4.1-9.5) 303 (18.5) 8.6 (5.8-12.5)  
   40-49 441 (23.0) 11.3 (8.6-14.8) 400 (24.4) 22.8 (18.8-27.2)  
   50-59 298 (15.5) 14.8 (11.0-19.4) 290 (17.7) 41.4 (35.7-47.3)  
   60+ 312 (16.3) 18.3 (14.2-23.1) 297 (18.1) 45.5 (39.7-51.3)  
BMI, kg/m2      < 0.001
   < 25.0 989 (51.5) 0.3 (0.1-1.0) 781 (47.7) 4.0 (2.8-5.7)  
   25.0-29.9 707 (36.9) 9.3 (7.4-11.8) 515 (31.5) 28.9 (25.1-33.1)  
   ≥30.0 222 (11.6) 50.9 (44.1-57.6) 341 (20.8) 60.1 (54.7-65.3)  
Education      < 0.001
   Secondary school 435 (22.7) 10.3 (7.7-13.7) 426 (26.0) 31.9 (27.6-36.6)  
   College 1170(61.0) 7.9 (6.4-9.6) 774 (47.3) 21.3 (18.5-24.4)  
   University 313 (16.3) 14.4 (10.8-18.9) 437 (26.7) 19.2 (15.7-23.3)  
Income      < 0.001
   Very low 283 (14.8) 17.0 (12.9-22.0) 379 (23.2) 43.8 (38.8-49.0)  
   Low 136 (7.1) 14.7 (9.4-22.0) 740 (45.2) 20 (17.2-23.1)  
   Medium 144 (7.5) 6.9 (3.6-12.7) 189 (11.5) 23.8 (18.1-30.7)  
   High 1058(55.2) 9.3 (7.6-11.2) 34 (2.1) 17.7 (7.4-35.2)  
   Unknown 297 (15.5) 2.0 (0.8-4.6) 295 (18.0) 6.8 (4.3-10.4)  
Sedentary lifestyle      < 0.001
   Yes 437 (22.8) 14.0 (10.9-17.7) 656 (40.1) 32.2 (28.6-35.9)  
   No 1481(77.2) 8.2 (6.9-9.7) 981 (59.9) 17.7 (15.4-20.3)  
Current smoking      < 0.001
   Yes 1085(56.6) 7.5 (6.0-9.2) 348 (21.3) 13.2 (9.9-17.3)  
   No 833 (43.4) 12.1 (10.0-14.6) 1289(78.7) 26.3 (23.9.28.8)  
Low fresh fruits/vegetables intake      0.01
   Yes 779 (40.6) 8.2 (6.4-10.4) 599(36.6) 25.5 (22.1-29.3)  
   No 1139(59.4) 10.4 (8.7-12.3) 1038(63.4) 22.4 (19.9-25.0)  
Frequency of alcohol intake      < 0.001
   Abstainers 230 (12.0) 15.2 (11.0-20.7) 445 (27.2) 34.2 (29.8-38.8)  
   ≤ 1 times a month 434 (22.6) 12.4 (9.6-16.0) 542 (33.1) 25.3 (21.7-29.2)  
   2-4 times a month 979 (51.0) 7.2 (5.7-9.0) 571 (34.9) 15.9 (13.1-19.3)  
   ≥5 times a month 275 (14.3) 8.4 (5.5-12.4) 79 (4.8) 6.3 (2.4-14.8)  
Number of AU on occasion      < 0.001
   Abstainers 230 (12.0) 15.2 (11.0-20.7) 445 (27.2) 34.2 (29.8-38.8)  
   1-4 AU 780 (40.5) 9.5 (7.6-11.8) 946 (57.7) 20.0 (17.5-22.7)  
   ≥ 5 AU 912 (47.5) 8.0 (6.4-10.0) 248 (15.1) 17.7 (13.3-23.2)  
Self-reported
MI or stroke
56 (2.9)   51 (3.1)   0.768
GGT, U/l, mean (SD) 43.7 (60.8)   28.4 (39.8)   < 0.001
AST, U/l, mean (SD) 29.5 (22.7)   23.6 (13.7)   < 0.001
ALT, U/l, mean (SD) 20.7 (20.8)   12.9 (12.8)   < 0.001
AST/ALT, mean (SD) 1.8 (0.9)   2.1 (0.8)   < 0.001
CRP, mg/l, mean (SD) 3.2 (9.1)   2.6 (5.6)   0.02
Metabolic syndrome3 182/1918 9.5 (8.2-10.9) 385/1637 23.5 (21.5-25.7) < 0.001
  1. 1 95% CI for proportions calculated using Wilson procedure
  2. 2 p-values for the differences between genders
  3. 3 Metabolic syndrome defined according to the modified IDF criteria