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Table 1 Inequality in mortality in Switzerland by language region and cause of death in men

From: Educational inequalities in mortality and associated risk factors: German- versus French-speaking Switzerland

  German Switzerland (GS) French Switzerland (FS)   
   Rate overall and by educational level Rate decrease per additional year of education   Rate overall and by educational level Rate decrease per additional year of education GS vs. FS* Significance of region*
  deaths all low middle high % 95% CI deaths all low middle high % 95% CI p-value z-value
All causes 122182 1186 1515 1156 854 7.74 (7.49;7.99) 38721 1220 1478 1176 882 6.45 (6.07;6.84) < 0.001 5.5
Circulatory system 44555 426 529 418 310 7.29 (6.88;7.70) 12141 376 451 363 272 6.33 (5.64;7.02) 0.019 2.36
   Coronary heart disease 24732 238 283 239 177 6.38 (5.84;6.92) 5597 175 203 174 129 5.31 (4.33;6.30) 0.062 1.86
   Other heart diseases 8297 80 108 76 52 10.14 (9.14;11.15) 1291 106 135 96 75 7.97 (6.63;9.33) 0.012 2.53
   Stroke 6313 59 77 55 44 7.93 (6.83;9.03) 1735 53 62 52 37 6.44 (4.62;8.29) 0.175 1.36
Cancer 42872 420 513 419 315 6.39 (5.98;6.80) 14695 467 556 456 347 5.96 (5.34;6.58) 0.250 1.15
   UADT cancer 3272 33 51 32 18 15.20 (13.46;16.97) 1604 53 70 53 28 12.50 (10.34;14.69) 0.057 1.9
   Stomach cancer 2052 20 29 19 12 12.84 (10.73;14.99) 544 17 23 15 12 9.18 (5.75;12.72) 0.081 1.75
   Intestinal cancer 4468 44 45 44 39 1.89 (0.75;3.04) 1467 46 50 48 39 2.39 (0.63;4.19) 0.638 -0.47
   Liver cancer 1494 15 17 15 11 6.18 (4.02;8.38) 790 25 28 26 20 4.27 (1.75;6.85) 0.265 1.12
   Lung cancer 11841 118 165 116 65 12.97 (12.09;13.87) 4163 134 179 123 82 11.07 (9.76;12.40) 0.019 2.34
   Breast cancer 4852 45 47 45 43 1.22 (0.14;2.30) 1445 43 45 43 39 1.66 (-0.09;3.45) 0.672 -0.42
Other diseases 15497 149 212 139 97 11.34 (10.76;11.92) 4947 153 193 143 105 7.63 (6.81;8.45) < 0.001 7.23
   COPD 5418 51 80 45 24 18.18 (16.73;19.64) 1177 36 51 30 21 13.89 (11.23;16.62) 0.007 2.72
   Liver cirrhosis 2490 25 37 25 15 12.99 (11.08;14.94) 1128 37 50 38 19 12.20 (9.67;14.80) 0.630 0.48
   Ill-defined 2670 27 32 26 25 1.72 (0.26;3.21) 1832 58 64 59 50 2.86 (1.26;4.48) 0.305 -1.03
Injuries 8680 87 112 85 67 6.44 (5.55;7.35) 2801 91 113 87 68 6.43 (5.03;7.85) 0.986 0.02
   Suicide 4121 42 46 42 36 2.57 (1.37;3.78) 1280 42 50 42 34 4.42 (2.45;6.42) 0.116 -1.57
   Transport accident 1452 15 21 13 11 11.46 (9.05;13.93) 488 16 19 16 12 4.94 (1.73;8.24) 0.002 3.12
Smoking-related 20595 202 296 194 108 14.72 (14.02;15.42) 6969 223 301 206 131 11.55 (10.52;12.58) < 0.001 4.98
Alcohol-related 8378 85 123 83 48 12.96 (11.91;14.02) 3867 127 163 128 73 10.44 (9.11;11.78) 0.004 2.91
  1. *Statistical significance of the difference between Swiss regions in decrease of mortality per additional year of education
  2. 1990-2000, 40-79 years
  3. UADT: Upper aerodigestive tract; COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  4. ISCED: International Standard Classification of Education
  5. Educational level: low = no secondary or tertiary education (ISCED 1-2), middle = secondary education (ISCED 3-4); high = tertiary education (ISCED 5-6)
  6. Rates were standardized to the WHO standard population "Europe" [13]
  7. Data source: Swiss Federal Statistical Office/Swiss National Cohort