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Table 4 Bivariate analysis: Characteristics associated with hand cleanliness (clean palms and finger pads) for mothers/caregivers and young children (N = 1692 households for cross sectional survey, N = 997 households for structured observation)

From: Observed hand cleanliness and other measures of handwashing behavior in rural Bangladesh

Characteristics Caregivers' with this characteristic and clean palms and finger pads % (n) Caregivers' without this characteristic and clean palms and finger pads % (n) Adjusted OR* (95% CI), p value Children with this characteristic and clean palms and finger pads % (n) Children without this characteristic and clean palms and finger pads % (n) Adjusted OR* (95% CI), p-value
Female caregivers ever washed hands with soap (observed) 56 (84) 53 (446) 1.07 (0.72, 1.56), p = 0.698 29 (41) 25 (201) 1.21 (0.81, 1.79), p = 0.356
Separate soap available at household for handwashing (spot checked) 53 (215) 55 (715) 0.91 (0.73, 1.14), p = 0.432 33 (128) 26 (325) 1.41 (1.10, 1.81), p = 0.006
Spare soap available at household (spot checked) 60 (324) 53 (606) 1.34 (1.08, 1.64), p = 0.006 33 (168) 25 (285) 1.41 (1.12, 1.78), p = 0.003
Used improved latrine (spot checked the infrastructure) 61 (241) 53 (689) 1.40 (1.11, 1.77), p = 0.004 35 (130) 26 (323) 1.55 (1.21, 1.99), p = 0.001
Handwashing location after toilet use: within 10 feet (spot checked) 54 (627) 58 (303) 0.83 (0.70, 1.06), p = 0.150 29 (323) 25 (130) 1.22 (0.96, 1.55), p = 0.104
Water available at handwashing locations after toilet use (spot checked) 58 (713) 46 (217) 1.60 (1.29, 1.98), p = 0.000 31 (360) 20 (93) 1.72 (1.32, 2.24), p = 0.000
Soap available at handwashing locations after toilet use (spot checked) 58 (493) 52 (437) 1.29 (1.06, 1.57), p = 0.010 32 (261) 24 (192) 1.54 (1.24, 1.93), p = 0.000
Self defined economic status: middle class and above 61 (511) 49 (419) 1.59 (1.31, 1.93), p = 0.000 33 (266) 23 (187) 1.70 (1.36, 2.12), p = 0.000
Economic status based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA)       
2nd quintile (compared to poorest) 49 (165) 47 (159) 1.07 (0.79, 1.44), p = 0.662 21 (68) 19 (63) 1.11 (0.76, 1.63), p = 0.595
3rd quntile (compared to poorest) 57 (194) 47 (159) 1.50 (1.11, 2.04), p = 0.009 27 (90) 19 (63) 1.64 (1.13, 2.37), p = 0.009
4th quintile (compared to poorest) 59 (199) 47 (159) 1.64 (1.20, 2.24), p = 0.002 37 (119) 19 (63) 2.47 (1.71, 3.55), p = 0.000
5th quintile (compared to poorest) 63 (213) 47 (159) 1.92 (1.41, 2.61) p = 0.000 35 (113) 19 (63) 2.35 (1.64, 3.36), p = .000