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Table 1 characteristics of the study sample (N = 333) and differences in the number of antenatal visits between subgroups

From: Determinants of the number of antenatal visits in a metropolitan region

   Study Sample Total number of Antenatal visits
   N % Median P25-P75 P
Predisposing characteristics      
Age* a <= 20 14 4.2 11 11-13 NS
  21-35 265 79.5 12 10-15  
  >35 53 15.9 13 10-15  
Marital Status b Co-habiting 302 90.7 11 9-14 NS
  Single 31 9.3 12 10-15  
Origina 15 oldest EU countriesc 134 40.3 13 10-17 < 0.001
  Maghreb and Turkey 112 33.6 11 9-13  
  Sub-Saharan African 49 14.7 13 9-14  
  Other 38 11.4 12 10-15  
Educational level a Not finished secondary school 49 14.7 10 9-12 < 0.001
  Secondary school 150 45.0 11 9-13  
  Higher education 134 40.2 14 11-18  
Occupational status b Active on labour market 151 45.3 13 10-17 < 0.001
  Not active on the labour market 182 54.7 11 9-14  
Enabling characteristics      
Equivalent incomea,d Low 91 27.3 11 9-13 < 0.001
  Moderate 164 49.2 11.5 10-14  
  High 78 23.4 15 12-18  
Health Insurance Coverage b Yes 311 93.4 11 10-14 NS
  No 22 6.6 12 10-15  
Receiving welfare benefits* b Yes 31 9.3 12 10-15 NS
  No 301 90.4 11 9-13  
Regular obstetrician b Yes 160 48.0 12 10-14 NS
  No 173 52.0 12.5 10-16  
Regular General Practitioner b Yes 206 61.9 11 9-14 0.042
  No 127 38.1 13 10-16  
Pregnancy related characteristics      
Parity b Primiparae 128 38.4 13.5 11-17 < 0.001
  Multiparae 205 61.5 11 9-14  
Wanted pregnancy* b Later or not 52 15.6 11.5 9.5-13 NS
  Earlier or right time 280 84.1 12 10-16  
Planned pregnancy b Yes 257 77.2 11 9-13 0.002
  No 76 22.8 12 10-16  
Medical assisted pregnancy* b Yes 15 4.5 12 10-15 NS
  No 317 95.2 12 10-16  
History of obstetric risks b,e Yes 92 27.6 12 10-16 NS
  No 241 72.4 12 10-14  
Gestational age at initiation of care b Before week 14 316 99.5 12 10-15 < 0.001
  After week 14 17 0.05 9 6-10  
High risk status during antenatal careb,f Yes 51 15.3 12 10-15 0.023
  No 282 84.7 14 10-17  
Continuity of Carer Index b,g <50% 253 76.0 12 10-16 0.002
  >= 50% 80 24.0 11 9-13  
Gestational age at delivery b <37 weeks 24 7.2 10 9-13 0.016
  >= 37 weeks 309 92.8 12 10-15  
  1. *1 missing **2 missing
  2. NS Not Significant
  3. P25-P75 Percentile 25-Percentile 75
  4. a Kruskal-Wallis test
  5. b Mann-Whitney test
  6. c Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom
  7. dΣ incomes in the household/(1+(a*0.5)+(c*0.3)) with a: number of adults living in the same household of the wife (wife not included), c: number of children under the age of 18 living in the same household (OECD scale)[26]
  8. e history of preterm baby, low birth weight, miscarriage, still birth or admission on Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
  9. f hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm contractions, hospitalization, anaemia
  10. g Bice index or Continuity of Care index: COC = n j 2 n n ( n 1 ) (Bice, 1977) [31, 32]
  11. nj is the total number of visits to a provider
  12. n is the total number of visits