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Table 1 Overview of studies on childhood psychosocial factors and incident type 2 diabetes

From: Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

No. Authors Year Nation/
Abbr.
N Age
at baseline
Follow up
(years)
Risk factor Outcome Effect size (95% CI or SE)
(adjusted)
Study quality score1
D1 [41] Lidfeldt
et al.
2007 USA
NHS
100,330
females
30-55 22 Father´s occupation
5 levelsa
T2DM (FPG > 140 mg/dl)˚ RR (CI) laborer vs. rest a 1.08 (0.95; 1.2) 1 (D = 0; R = 0; E = 0; O = 0, C = 1)
D2 [42] Maty
et al.
2008 USA
ACS
5,913 17-94 34 Father´s occupation
2 levels manual/non-manual
Self-reported DM HR (CI) for manual vs. non-manual m 1.2 (0.8; 1.7)
w 1.7 (1.2; 2.4)
3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 0; O = 0; C = 1)
D3 [43] Gissler
et al.
1999 FIN 59,865 0 7 Mother´s occupation
3 levelsb
DM criteria
register based
OR (CI) for
blue-collar vs. upper white collarb
0.83 (0.5; 1.5) 3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 0)
D4 [49] Hayes
et al.
2006 UK 233
(BMI≥25)
0 50 Father´s occupation
3 levelsc
"metabolically normal" (MetS) OR (CI) for
Class IV, V vs. I, II
m 0.2 (0.05; 0.8)*
w 0.6 (0.1; 2.7)
1 (D = 1; R = 0; E = 0; O = 0; C = 0)
D5 [47] Langen-berg et al. 2006 UK 2,629 0 53 Father´s occupation
6 levelsd
HbA1c ( > 5,8%) OR (CI) for lowest vs. highest class m 1.1 (1.0; 1.8)
w 0.8 (0.5; 1.4)
3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 0)
D6 [46] Kivimäki et al. 2005 FIN 1,922 3-18 21 Parental occupation
3 levelsb
HOMA-IR OR (CI) for change per descending CSES category m 1.3 (1.03; 1.6)*
w 1.2 (0.98; 1.5)
4 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 1; O = 1; C = 0)
D7 [44] Kohler
et al.
2005 MEX 6,423 50+ 2 Parental education
4 levelse
Self-reported DM OR (CI)h for mother > elementary vs. rest 0.6 (0.5; 0.8)** 2 (D = 0; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 0)
D8 [45] Best
et al.
2005 USA
HRS
12,589 51+ 4 Parental education (in years) Self-reported DM β (SE) regression coefficients (linear) m 0.2 (0.1)
w 0.05 (0.1)
2 (D = 0; R = 1; E = 1; O = 0; C = 0)
D9 [50] Goodman et al. 2007 USA
PSD
1,167 13-19 3 Parental education;
4 categoriesf
HOMA-IR β (SE) for high school or less vs. rest 4.5 (0.78)** 3 (D = 1; R = 0; E = 1; O = 1, C = 0)
D10 [48] Thomas
et al.
2008 UK 9,310 0 45 Childhoood adversityg HbA1c ( > 6,0%); MetS OR (CI) for mother: little interest in education 1.4 (0.99; 1.9) 3 (D = 1; R = 1; E = 0; O = 0; C = 1)
  1. NHS: Nurse's Health Study
  2. ACS: Alameda County Study
  3. HRS: Health and Retirement Study
  4. PSD: Princeton School District Study
  5. T2DM: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus
  6. DM: Diabetes mellitus
  7. MetS: Metabolic Syndrome
  8. HbA1c: Glycated Hemoglobin
  9. HOMA-IR: Homeostatic Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance
  10. Β: Beta Coefficient
  11. HR: Hazard Ratio
  12. OR: Odds Ratio
  13. RR: Relative Risk
  14. CI: Confidence Interval
  15. SE: Standard Error
  16. 1 D Duration (1 = birth cohort or starting in youth)
  17. R Recruitment (1 = population-based or school-based)
  18. E Explanatory variables, (1 = risk factor assessment for CSES directly in parents, not retrospectively in adults)
  19. O Outcome type 2 diabetes (1 = according to ADA diagnostic criteria for fasting plasma glucose)
  20. C Confounding (1 = adjustment of age, sex, BMI, physical activity, smoking and alcohol)
  21. a Edwards classification of social class: upper white-collar, lower white-collar, blue-collar, laborers, farmers
  22. b As classified by Statistics Finland, 1989: upper non-manual, lower non-manual, manual,
  23. c UK Regristrar General's Standard Occupational Classification: I u. II most advantaged; III manual; IV u. V least advantaged.
  24. d Professional, intermediate, skilled nonmanual, skilled manual, semiskilled, unskilled.
  25. e Without any; some elementary; completed elementary; more than elementary education (≥7years)
  26. f Without any formal education, high school or less, some college, college graduate or higher.
  27. g Questionnaire including abuse, physical & emotional neglect, household dysfunction
  28. h Confidence interval self-calculated from standard error.
  29. m = men; w = women
  30. ˚ ADA diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus: fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dl
  31. ** p < 0.01/* p < 0.05