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Table 2 Odds ratios for sociodemographic characteristics and stunting, wasting, and underweight among Roma children under 5 in Roma Settlements, UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Serbia, 2005-2006 (n = 1192).

From: Risk factors for childhood malnutrition in Roma settlements in Serbia

Characteristic Stunting Wasting Underweight
  % OR 95% aORa 95% % OR 95% aORa 95% % OR 95% aORa 95%
    CI   CI    CI   CI    CI   CI
Type of settlement                
   Urban 19.5 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) 1.1 (0.8, 1.6) 5.2 2.8* (1.1, 7.7) 2.8* (1.3, 6.2) 8.6 1.4 (0.8, 2.4) 1.4 (0.9, 2.2)
   Rural 21.6 1.0 refb 1.0   1.9 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 6.2 1.0 ref 1.0 ref
Region                
   Vojvodina 19.9 1.1 (0.7, 1.6) 0.8 (0.6, 1.2) 7.3 2.9* (1.6, 5.1) 3.2* (1.7, 5.9) 10.8 2.0* (1.2, 3.3) 1.8* (1.1, 2.9)
   Belgrade 24.3 1.4 (0.9, 2.2) 2.0* (1.3, 3.1) 4.2 1.5 (0.8, 3.0) 1.4 (0.7, 2.5) 9.8 1.6 (0.9, 3.0) 1.5 (0.8, 2.9)
Central
Serbia
18.4 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 2.8 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 5.8 1.0 ref 1.0 ref
Mother's education                
Primary
or less
20.5 2.2 (0.9, 5.3) 1.4 (0.6, 3.6) 4.4 2.1 (0.3, 16.9) 2.0 (0.2, 19.0) 8.2 b b b b
   Secondary 10.4 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 2.1 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 2.1     
Mother's literacy                
Cannot read
sentence
21.2 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 0.8 (0.6, 1.1) 4.6 1.5 (0.7, 3.0) 1.4 (0.7, 2.8) 8.5 1.1 (0.7, 1.9) 1.0 (0.6, 1.6)
Read part of
sentence
19.3 0.9 (0.6, 1.5) 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 7.4 2.4* (1.1, 5.1) 2.2* (1.1, 4.4) 8.0 1.1 (0.5, 2.1) 1.0 (0.5, 2.0)
Read entire
sentence
20.7 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 3.2 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 7.6 1.0 ref 1.0 ref
Father's education                
Primary
or less
20.8 1.4 (0.8, 2.5) 1.1 (0.6, 1.9) 4.1 1.0 (0.4, 2.6) 0.8 (0.3, 2.2) 8.0 1.3 (0.7, 2.4) 1.0 (0.5, 1.9)
   Secondary 15.7 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 4.1 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 6.6 1.0 ref 1.0 (0.3, 2.9)
Father not in
household
18.3 1.2 (0.6, 2.7) 0.8 (0.4, 1.9) 7.0 1.8 (0.5, 6.3) 1.5 (0.4, 5.6) 9.9 1.6 (0.5, 4.7) 1.0 1.0
Wealth quintile                
1st (lowest
wealth)
31.5 3.0* (1.8, 5.0) 4.1* (2.4, 6.9) 3.3 0.9 (0.3, 2.4) 0.7 (0.3, 1.9) 7.1 1.0 (0.5, 2.0) 1.0 (0.5, 2.0)
   2nd 22.1 1.8* (1.0, 3.3) 2.1* (1.2, 3.7) 4.9 1.3 (0.6, 3.1) 1.2 (0.5, 2.9) 9.4 1.4 (0.7, 2.9) 1.2 (0.6, 2.6)
   3rd 18.9 1.5 (0.9, 2.7) 1.6 (0.9, 2.8) 6.2 1.7 (0.7, 4.0) 1.6 (0.7, 3.4) 9.5 1.4 (0.7, 2.8) 1.3 (0.6, 2.5)
   4th 13.4 1.0 (0.6, 1.6) 1.0 (0.6, 1.6) 3.2 0.9 (0.4, 1.9) 0.9 (0.4, 2.0) 6.9 1.0 (0.5, 1.9) 0.9 (0.5, 1.8)
5th (highest
wealth)
13.4 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 3.7 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 6.9 1.0 ref 1.0 ref
Mother's age at
first marriage
               
15 years
or less
20.2 1.3 (0.8, 2.0) 1.2 (0.7, 1.9) 5.0 0.9 (0.4, 2.2) 0.9 (0.4, 2.1) 8.5 1.4 (0.7, 2.8) 1.3 (0.7, 2.7)
   16-17 years 21.2 1.4 (0.9, 2.1) 1.2 (0.8, 1.9) 3.5 0.6 (0.3, 1.5) 0.7 (0.3, 1.6) 4.6 0.7 (0.3, 1.6) 0.7 (0.3, 1.6)
18 years
or more
16.5 1.0 ref 1.0 (0.9, 2.1) 5.3 1.0 ref 1.0 ref 6.2 1.0 ref 1.0 ref
  1. a Adjusted for all covariates in Table 1.
  2. b Insufficient data
  3. * p < 0.05