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Table 3 A comparison between the contact and non-contact group by enabling, evaluated need and circumstance of death variables

From: Suicide with psychiatric diagnosis and without utilization of psychiatric service

Enabling, evaluated need & circumstance of death variables Contact gp. Non-contact gp. df X2 T P-value
Number of cases 52 (43.7%) 67 (56.3%)     
Income level 1 8.34   .004*
   Less than HK$7K 40 (85.1%) 37 (59.7%)     
   HK$7K or more 7 (14.9%) 25 (40.3%)     
Employment status 2 8.22   .016*
   Full/part-time/self-employed 15 (31.2%) 36 (55.4%)     
   Unemployed/quitted 24 (50.0%) 25 (38.5%)     
   Economically inactive 9 (18.8%) 4 (6.2%)     
Financial debts/bankruptcy 1 16.71   .000*
   Debts/broke 5 (9.6%) 29 (43.9%)     
   No debts/not broke 47 (90.4%) 37 (56.1%)     
Social problem-solving ability     
   Mean 17.30
(S.D. = 8.09)
21.94
(S.D. = 8.11)
   -2.96
-2.96
.004*
.004*
Social support     
   Size of social support 3.43
(S.D. = 2.86)
3.69
(S.D. = 2.37)
   -.49
-.48
.623
.630
   Frequency of social activities 6.15
(S.D. = 4.88)
7.90
(S.D. = 5.38)
   -1.60
-1.62
.114
.110
   Social support content 2.99
(S.D. = 1.13)
3.22
(S.D. = .95)
   -1.08
-1.07
.281
.288
SCID diagnosis 1 22.0   .000*
   Psychotic disorder(s) 23 (44.2%) 5 (7.5%)     
   Non-psychotic disorder(s) 29 (55.8%) 62 (92.5%)     
Suicide Intent Scale     
   Mean 6.88
(S.D. = 3.22)
9.52
(S.D. = 4.02)
   -3.85
-3.96
.000*
Level of suicide intent 1 9.85   .002*
   Low (0-5.5) 21 (40.4%) 10 (14.9%)     
   High (5.6-14) 31 (59.6%) 57 (85.1%)     
Previous suicide attempt(s) 1 5.01   .082
   Yes 31 (59.6%) 28 (41.8%)     
   No 19 (36.5%) 38 (56.7%)     
Suicide method 6 12.18   .058
   Cutting/stabbing 2 (3.8%) 1 (1.5%)     
   Drug overdose 3 (5.8%) 4 (6.0%)     
   Jumping railway 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.5%)     
   Jumping from a height 34 (65.4%) 25 (37.3%)     
   Hanging 3 (5.8%) 7 (10.4%)     
Carbon monoxide poisoning
by charcoal burning
8 (15.4%) 25 (37.3%)     
   Others 2 (3.8%) 4 (6.0%)     
  1. * p-value < .05
  2. The term of "Economic inactive" refers to those people who are disabled, retired or home makers.
  3. The term of "Financial debts" means unmanageable debts, the total amount of which is > (average monthly income - basic living expenses) × 48 months.
  4. Psychotic disorders include Schizophrenia, Delusional disorder, Brief psychotic disorder & other psychotic disorders NOS; Non-psychotic disorders include Major Depression, Dysthymia, Bipolar, Alcohol dependence, Non-alcohol substance abuse, Panic disorder, Adjustment disorder, Anxiety disorder, Obsessive compulsive disorder, Pain disorder & Pathological gambling.