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Table 1 Background characteristics of study sample and prevalence of hypertension by sex

From: Epidemic of hypertension in Ghana: a systematic review

Study references Year of study Location Region Population type Participants Sample size sex Sample size residence Response rate Age in years Prevalence ≥ 140/90 Crude Prevalence ≥ 160/95
       Men Women Total urban rural   Range mean Men Women Total Men Women Total
Pobee et al 1979 [2224, 74] 1972/1973 Accra-Tema GAR urban public servants 5520 1380 6900    91.0 15 -64 nr nr nr nr 9.8 4.3 8.9
Pobee et al 1977 [24, 32] early 1973 Danfa cluster of 20 villagesa GAR rural general pop. 809 861 1670 - 1670 97.5 16 -75+ nrk nr nr nr 4.2 4.8 4.5
Ikeme et al 1978 [21, 22, 37, 41] Sept 1975 - May 1976 Mamprobi, Accra GAR urban general pop. 1637 2108 3745 3745 - 73.0 15 -64 nrl 28.5%m 23.2%m 25.5%m 16.1 10.8 13.1
Chukwuemeka et al 1983 [20, 74] 1981 Mamprobi, Accra GAR urban general pop. nr nr 928 928 - 25.0 15 -64 nr nr nr nr nr nr 13.0
Hesse 1998 [30] Mar - Jun 1995 James Camp Prison in Accrab GAR urban Male Prison Officers; prisoners 292g - 292 292 - officers 81.4 prisoners 95.3 Nr officers = 39.8 ± 9.5; prisoners = 31.1 ± 10.3 nr nr nr officers = 36.4; prisoners = 2.9 - nr
Amoah 2003 [33] 1998 2 urban and 2 rural sites GAR Rural; urban general pop. 1860 2873 4733 nr nr 75 25 - 102 44.3 ± 14.7 27.6 29.5 28.3 14.7 17.4 16.2
Addo et al 2006 [27] 2001 4 sites, Ga districtc GAR rural general pop. 107 255 362 0 362 60-80% of villages 18 - 99 42.4 ± 18.6 24.1 25.9 25.4 nr nr 15.2
Burket 2006 [35] April 2002 Liati and Tokor, Kpando district VR rural general pop. 66 221 287 0 287 99.0 17 -60+ 41.8h 39.4 30.7 32.8 nr nr nr
Cappucio et al 2004 [36, 75] June 2001 - June 2002 6 semi-urband and 6 rural AR Rural; semi-urban general pop. 385 628 1013 532 481 53.4 40 -75 54.7 ± 11.3 29.9 28.0 28.7 nr nr nr
Escalona et al 2004 [18] Oct 2000 - Sept 2002 6 sites, Accrae GAR urban general pop. 257 341 598 598 nr nr 15 - 65+ nr 27.6 26.1 26.8 nr nr nr
Hill et al 2007 [29, 44] 2003 Accra Metropolis GAR urban general pop. of women 0 1328 1328 1328 - 41.5 18 -100 46.8 ± 18.0 - 48.0 48.0 nr nr nr
Agyeman et al 2006 [28, 42] 2004 Kumasi and 4 villages AR Rural; urban general pop. 787 644 1431 853 578 82-99 16 -50+ 35.9 31.0 28.0 29.4 nr nr nr
Addo et al 2008 [31, 76] 2005 7 ministries, Accraf GAR urban civil servants 615 400 1015 1015 nr 82.7 25 -68 44.0 ± 10.1 31.7 28.0 30.2 nr nr nr
Owiredu et al 2008 [19] Aug - Oct 2005 3 Pentecostal churches, Kumasi AR urban Church goers 117 266 383 383 - Nr 18 - 85 41.6 ± 13.4 SBP = 12.0; DBP = 9.4 SBP = 29.3; DBP = 25.6 SBP = 24.0; DBP = 20.6 nr nr nr
Kunutsor & Powles 2009 [34] Feb - Apr 2007 Kassena-Nankana District UER rural general pop. 207 367 574 - 574 95.7 15 - 65 37.8 ± 14.1    19.2    
Mensa-Wilmot 2003 [26] 2003 Kassena-Nankana District UER rural general pop. 852 1166 2018 - 2018 Nr 15 -64 36.0 ± 14.6i SBP = 5.6; DBP = 7.2 SBP = 3.8; DBP = 5.4 SBP = 6.2; DBP = 4.5 nr nr nr
Akufo 2008 [25] 2008 Kumasi metropolis AR urban factory workers 251 49 300 300 - Nr 17 -72 34.5j 22.7 18.4 22.0 nr nr nr
  1. nr = not reported; GAR = Greater Accra Region; AR = Ashanti Region; UER = Upper East Region; VR = Volta Region; general pop. = general population
  2. a = Danfa villages within 80 km of Accra; b = Low security prison; c = Sarpeiman, Opah, Ayikai Doblo, Amamoley in Amasaman sub-district; d = semi-urban sites (Tikrom, Appeadu, Duase, Apatrapa, Feyiase, Nwamase) up to 15 km from Kumasi, rural sites (Pemenase, Edwenase, Domeabra, Ofoase, Atia, Dumakwai) up to 40 km from Kumasi in the Kumasi and Ejisu-Juaben districts; e = communities are Teshie, Sakaman, Awoshie, Onyinase, Dansoman, Mamprobi; f = out of 26 ministries; g = 88 Prison officers and 204 prisoners; h, i, j = median age 40, 35, 39 years respectively; k = 63.8% aged < 45 years; l = 36.5% of sample aged 15-25 years; 5.8% aged 55-64 years; m = based on 2,001 men and 2,702 women