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Table 3 Hazard ratio and population attributable fraction for cardiovascular disease deaths according to the combination of smoking status and obesity*: NIPPON DATA90

From: Population Attributable Fraction of Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome on Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Japan: a 15-Year Follow Up of NIPPON DATA90

   Number of participants Person-years of follow-up CVD deaths (n) CVD mortality rate (per 1,000 person-years) Adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI)† Estimated excess CVD deaths (n) PAF component for CVD deaths (%)
Men          
Non smoker Non-obese 420 5938 6 1.01 1.00     
  Obese 136 1988 1 0.50 0.67 (0.08 -5.53) -- --
Past smoker Non-obese 431 6116 16 2.62 1.93 (0.75 -4.96) 7.7 8.8
  Obese 170 2414 5 2.07 1.52 (0.46 -4.99) 1.7 2.0
Smoker Non-obese 1212 16780 47 2.80 3.13 (1.33 -7.36) 32.0 36.8
  Obese 383 5277 12 2.27 2.92 (1.09 -7.82) 7.9 9.1
Women          
Non smoker Non-obese 2,638 37960 29 0.76 1.00     
  Obese 793 11256 17 1.51 1.34 (0.74 -2.45) 4.3 7.1
Past smoker Non-obese 66 843 1 1.19 1.43 (0.19 -10.61) 0.3 0.5
  Obese 28 383 1 2.61 2.46 (0.33 -18.09) 0.6 1.0
Smoker Non-obese 282 3889 9 2.31 4.32 (1.99 -9.37) 6.9 11.3
  Obese 91 1224 4 3.27 4.74 (1.66 -13.58) 3.2 5.2
  1. *Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2.
  2. †Hazard ratios were adjusted for age and drinking.
  3. CVD, cardiovascular diseases; PAF, population attributable fraction; CI, confidence interval.