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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes

From: Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study

Neonatal factor T1D Cases Controls Unadjusted Adjusted*
  n = 361 n = 1083 OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
  n (%) n (%)       
Sex of baby      1.00    
Male (reference category) 188 (52.1) 564 (52.1) 1.00      
Female 173 (47.9) 519 (47.9) 1.00 0.79, 1.27     
Gestational age (weeks)      0.41    
< 37 24 (6.6) 59 (5.4) 1.23 0.75, 2.02     
≥ 37 (reference category) 336 (93.1) 1023 (94.5) 1.00      
Unknown 1 (0.3) 1 (0.1)       
Birth Order      0.84    
1 (reference category) 181 (50.1) 525 (48.5) 1.00      
2 117 (32.4) 357 (33.0) 0.95 0.74, 1.24     
≥ 3 63 (17.5) 201 (18.6) 0.91 0.65, 1.27     
Birth weight (kg)      0.50    0.22
<2.5 17 (4.7) 61 (5.6) 0.82 0.47, 1.44   0.66 0.34, 1.28  
≥ 2.5 (reference category) 344 (95.3) 1021 (94.3) 1.00    1.00   
Unknown 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)       
Jaundice      0.75    
No (reference category) 338 (93.6) 1018 (94.0) 1.00      
Yes 23 (6.4) 65 (6.0) 1.10 0.60, 2.04     
Phototherapy†      0.42    
No (reference category) 41 (11.4) 101 (9.3) 1.00      
Yes 9 (2.5) 30 (2.8) 0.72 0.31, 1.68     
Unknown 311 (86.1) 952 (87.9) 0.74 0.46, 1.18     
Breast feeding      0.66    0.26
No (reference category) 23 (6.4) 80 (7.4) 1.00      
Yes 32 (8.9) 90 (8.3) 1.27 0.67, 2.42   1.62 0.77, 3.44  
Unknown or mixed feeding‡ 306 (84.8) 913 (84.3) 1.49 0.56, 3.92   2.24 0.78, 6.43  
Admitted to neonatal unit†      0.27    
No (reference category) 90 (24.9) 276 (25.5) 1.00      
Yes 12 (3.3) 38 (3.5) 0.98 0.48, 2.00     
Unknown 259 (71.7) 769 (71.0) 3.47 0.76, 15.91     
Apgar score at 1 min      0.39    
1 to 7 89 (24.7) 245 (22.6) 1.13 0.85, 1.49     
8 to 10 (reference category) 271 (75.1) 836 (77.2) 1.00      
Unknown 1 (0.3) 2 (0.2)       
Apgar score at 5 min      0.45    
1 to 7 14 (3.9) 33 (3.0) 1.28 0.68, 2.40     
8 to 10 (reference category) 346 (95.8) 1049 (96.9) 1.00      
Unknown 1 (0.3) 1 (0.1)       
  1. T1D, type 1 diabetes; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; kg, kilograms. *Birth weight adjusted for gestation; breast feeding adjusted for deprivation. †Data on phototherapy and admission to neonatal unit recorded from 1992 by AMND. ‡This category includes one case and 3 controls who were breast and formula fed.