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Table 1 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for maternal risk factors and childhood type 1 diabetes

From: Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study

Maternal factor T1D Cases
n = 361
Controls
n = 1083
Unadjusted Adjusted*
    OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
  n (%) n (%)       
Maternal age (years)      0.87    0.82
< 25 114 (31.6) 354 (32.7) 1.00 0.75, 1.34   1.09 0.78, 1.51  
25-29 (reference category) 126 (34.9) 391 (36.1) 1.00    1.00   
30-34 91 (25.2) 255 (23.5) 1.12 0.81, 1.54   1.05 0.74, 1.48  
≥ 35 30 (8.3) 83 (7.7) 1.13 0.71, 1.79   1.27 0.76, 2.13  
Maternal BMI (kg/m 2 )      0.14    0.55
< 25 (reference category) 167 (46.3) 547 (50.5) 1.00    1.00   
≥ 25 102 (28.3) 300 (27.7) 1.11 0.84, 1.47   1.14 0.85, 1.52  
Unknown 92 (25.5) 236 (21.8) 1.45 1.01, 2.10   1.26 0.75, 2.13  
Previous abortions      0.38    
No (reference category) 309 (85.6) 906 (83.7)       
Yes 52 (14.4) 177 (16.3) 0.86 0.61, 1.20     
Maternal smoking      0.02‡    0.14
No (reference category) 201 (55.7) 537 (49.6) 1.00    1.00   
Yes 84 (23.3) 330 (30.5) 0.61 0.43, 0.86   0.67 0.46, 0.99  
Unknown 76 (21.1) 216 (19.9) 0.74 0.45, 1.22   0.71 0.41, 1.26  
Pre-eclampsia      0.40    
No (reference category) 347 (96.1) 1029 (95.0) 1.00      
Yes 14 (3.9) 54 (5.0) 0.77 0.43, 1.40     
Amniocentesis      0.34    
No (reference category) 352 (97.5) 1045 (96.5) 1.00      
Yes 9 (2.5) 38 (3.5) 0.70 0.33, 1.47     
Maternal deprivation category‡    0.98 0.92, 1.04 0.51    
1 (least deprived) 102 (28.3) 320 (29.5)       
2 68 (18.8) 193 (17.8)       
3 50 (13.9) 112 (10.3)       
4 27 (7.5) 100 (9.2)       
5 23 (6.4) 94 (8.7)       
6 16 (4.4) 57 (5.3)       
7 (most deprived) 40 (11.1) 121 (11.2)       
Unknown 35 (9.7) 86 (7.9)       
Syntocinon†      0.32    
No (reference category) 168 (46.5) 478 (44.1) 1.00      
Yes 129 (35.7) 392 (36.2) 0.85 0.63, 1.17     
Unknown 64 (17.7) 213 (19.7) 0.67 0.40, 1.13     
Mode of delivery      0.54    
SVD (reference category) 241 (66.8) 753 (69.5) 1.00      
Assisted 67 (18.6) 187 (17.3) 1.12 0.82, 1.54     
Elective CS 24 (6.6) 53 (4.9) 1.42 0.86, 2.35     
Emergency CS 29 (8.0) 90 (8.3) 1.01 0.65, 1.58     
APH      0.79    
No (reference category) 327 (90.6) 986 (91.0) 1.00      
Yes 34 (9.4) 97 (9.0) 1.06 0.70, 1.60     
Rhesus isoimmunisation         
No (reference category) 361 (100.0) 1080 (99.7)       
Yes 0 (0.0) 3 (0.3)       
ABO isoimmunisation         
No (reference category) 361 (100.0) 1082 (99.9)       
Yes 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)       
  1. T1D, type 1 diabetes; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index; SVD, spontaneous vaginal delivery; CS, Caesarean section; APH, antepartum haemorrhage; kg, kilograms; m, metres. *Maternal age adjusted for amniocentesis, gestational age, birth weight, breast feeding, maternal deprivation, pre-eclampsia, birth order, mode of delivery and maternal smoking; BMI adjusted for gestation at the booking appointment; maternal smoking adjusted for maternal age, birth weight, breast feeding, maternal deprivation, pre-eclampsia, gestational age and mode of delivery. † Data on syntocinon collected from 1986 by AMND. ‡ P < 0.05. ‡ Risk of type 1 diabetes per unit increase in maternal deprivation.