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Table 2 Nutritional status of infants at six and twelve months of age stratified by selected maternal, infant and environmental characteristics

From: Prevalence and predictors of undernutrition among infants aged six and twelve months in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE Birth Cohort

Selectedbackground characteristics

6 month

12 month

 

Underweight

Stunted

Underweight

Stunted

 

Number (%)

p-value

Number (%)

p-value

Number (%)

p-value

Number (%)

p-value

Sex

        

Male

119(26.9)

0.000

150(33.9)

0.000

107(23.0)

0.173

266(57.0)

0.000

Female

69(16.4)

 

80(19.1)

 

88(19.3)

 

175(39.0)

 

Birth weight

        

Normal

108(20.4)

0.000

121(23.0)

0.000

108(20.4)

0.000

121(23.0)

0.008

Low

23(51.1)

 

14(31.8)

 

23(51.1)

 

14(31.8)

 

Missing

57(19.7)

 

95(32.7)

 

57(19.7)

 

95(32.7)

 

Residence

        

Rural

173(23.4)

0.005

196(26.5)

0.795

181(22.7)

0.002

398(50.2)

0.002

Urban

15(12.1)

 

32(25.6)

 

14(11.3)

 

43(35.0)

 

Under five children

        

None

44(25.1)

0.429

48(27.1)

0.873

28(14.8)

0.057

84(44.9)

0.590

Only one

91(20.4)

 

121(27.2)

 

107(22.8)

 

230(49.4)

 

Two or more

58(21.8)

 

61(25.4)

 

60(22.8)

 

127(48.3)

 

Sanitation facility

        

Toilet available

94(17.2)

0.000

133(24.4)

0.047

112(19.4)

0.088

257(44.6)

0.005

Open field

94(29.7)

 

97(30.6)

 

83(24.1)

 

184(54.1)

 

Rubbish disposal

        

Burn

29(15.1)

0.011

53(27.6)

0.752

34(17.1)

0.111

76(38.2)

0.001

Open field

159(23.7)

 

177(26.5)

 

161(22.3)

 

365(51.0)

 

Water source

        

Protected

117(19.6)

0.020

175(29.5)

0.006

104(16.2)

0.000

285(44.7)

0.001

Unprotected

71(26.7)

 

55(20.6)

 

91(32.6)

 

156(56.5)

 

Initiation of breast feeding

        

   < = 1 hour

47(17.1)

0.023

69(25.2)

0.439

55(19.0)

0.281

142(49.5)

0.655

   >1 hour

138(24.0)

 

159(27.7)

 

137(22.2)

 

294(47.9)

 

Colostrums

        

Given

142(20.5)

0.040

189(27.4)

0.505

153(20.6)

0.318

363(49.2)

0.313

Denied

45(28.0)

 

40(24.8)

 

40(24.1)

 

74(44.9)

 

Pre-lacteal feeding

        

Given

9(22.5)

0.934

10(25.0)

0.766

8(19.1)

0.728

21(48.8)

0.946

Not given

178(22.0)

 

219(27.1)

 

184(21.3)

 

414(48.3)

 

Breastfeeding at two months

        

Exclusive

158(21.9)

0.835

192(26.8)

0.916

167(21.6)

0.394

361(47.1)

0.137

Non-exclusive

30(21.1)

 

38(26.4)

 

27(18.5)

 

78(53.8)

 

Maternal education

        

Literate

38(22.0)

0.007

52(30.2)

0.239

36(19.5)

0.529

79(43.7)

0.176

Non-literate

150(21.7)

 

178(25.8)

 

159(21.6)

 

362(49.3)

 

Father's education

        

Literate

117(19.8)

0.044

151(25.8)

0.378

128(20.3)

0.407

292(46.7)

0.183

Non-literate

70(25.9)

 

78(28.7)

 

65(22.7)

 

146(51.4)