Skip to main content

Table 2 Nutritional status of infants at six and twelve months of age stratified by selected maternal, infant and environmental characteristics

From: Prevalence and predictors of undernutrition among infants aged six and twelve months in Butajira, Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE Birth Cohort

Selectedbackground characteristics 6 month 12 month
  Underweight Stunted Underweight Stunted
  Number (%) p-value Number (%) p-value Number (%) p-value Number (%) p-value
Sex         
Male 119(26.9) 0.000 150(33.9) 0.000 107(23.0) 0.173 266(57.0) 0.000
Female 69(16.4)   80(19.1)   88(19.3)   175(39.0)  
Birth weight         
Normal 108(20.4) 0.000 121(23.0) 0.000 108(20.4) 0.000 121(23.0) 0.008
Low 23(51.1)   14(31.8)   23(51.1)   14(31.8)  
Missing 57(19.7)   95(32.7)   57(19.7)   95(32.7)  
Residence         
Rural 173(23.4) 0.005 196(26.5) 0.795 181(22.7) 0.002 398(50.2) 0.002
Urban 15(12.1)   32(25.6)   14(11.3)   43(35.0)  
Under five children         
None 44(25.1) 0.429 48(27.1) 0.873 28(14.8) 0.057 84(44.9) 0.590
Only one 91(20.4)   121(27.2)   107(22.8)   230(49.4)  
Two or more 58(21.8)   61(25.4)   60(22.8)   127(48.3)  
Sanitation facility         
Toilet available 94(17.2) 0.000 133(24.4) 0.047 112(19.4) 0.088 257(44.6) 0.005
Open field 94(29.7)   97(30.6)   83(24.1)   184(54.1)  
Rubbish disposal         
Burn 29(15.1) 0.011 53(27.6) 0.752 34(17.1) 0.111 76(38.2) 0.001
Open field 159(23.7)   177(26.5)   161(22.3)   365(51.0)  
Water source         
Protected 117(19.6) 0.020 175(29.5) 0.006 104(16.2) 0.000 285(44.7) 0.001
Unprotected 71(26.7)   55(20.6)   91(32.6)   156(56.5)  
Initiation of breast feeding         
   < = 1 hour 47(17.1) 0.023 69(25.2) 0.439 55(19.0) 0.281 142(49.5) 0.655
   >1 hour 138(24.0)   159(27.7)   137(22.2)   294(47.9)  
Colostrums         
Given 142(20.5) 0.040 189(27.4) 0.505 153(20.6) 0.318 363(49.2) 0.313
Denied 45(28.0)   40(24.8)   40(24.1)   74(44.9)  
Pre-lacteal feeding         
Given 9(22.5) 0.934 10(25.0) 0.766 8(19.1) 0.728 21(48.8) 0.946
Not given 178(22.0)   219(27.1)   184(21.3)   414(48.3)  
Breastfeeding at two months         
Exclusive 158(21.9) 0.835 192(26.8) 0.916 167(21.6) 0.394 361(47.1) 0.137
Non-exclusive 30(21.1)   38(26.4)   27(18.5)   78(53.8)  
Maternal education         
Literate 38(22.0) 0.007 52(30.2) 0.239 36(19.5) 0.529 79(43.7) 0.176
Non-literate 150(21.7)   178(25.8)   159(21.6)   362(49.3)  
Father's education         
Literate 117(19.8) 0.044 151(25.8) 0.378 128(20.3) 0.407 292(46.7) 0.183
Non-literate 70(25.9)   78(28.7)   65(22.7)   146(51.4)