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Table 2 Incidence rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for cardiovascular disease mortality predicted from (a) total and (b) usable green space availability.

From: The association between green space and cause-specific mortality in urban New Zealand: an ecological analysis of green space utility

  (a) Total green space
  Model 1
(Baseline)
Model 2
(+ area deprivation)
Model 3
(+ smoking rate)
Model 4
(+ air pollution)
Green space availability quartile     
   1 (least) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   2 1.04 (0.97 to 1.12) 1.03 (0.97 to 1.09) 1.02 (0.96 to 1.08) 1.02 (0.96 to 1.08)
   3 1.00 (0.93 to 1.08) 1.06 (1.00 to 1.13) 1.03 (0.97 to 1.09) 1.01 (0.94 to 1.07)
   4 (most) 0.86 (0.79 to 0.94) 1.16 (1.07 to 1.25) 1.07 (0.99 to 1.16) 1.01 (0.91 to 1.11)
Sex     
   Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Female 0.41 (0.39 to 0.43) 0.40 (0.39 to 0.42) 0.40 (0.39 to 0.42) 0.40 (0.39 to 0.42)
Age group     
   55 to 64 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   45 to 54 0.36 (0.33 to 0.38) 0.35 (0.34 to 0.37) 0.35 (0.34 to 0.37) 0.35 (0.34 to 0.37)
   15 to 44 0.06 (0.06 to 0.07) 0.06 (0.06 to 0.06) 0.06 (0.06 to 0.06) 0.06 (0.06 to 0.06)
Area deprivation (NZDep2001)     
   1 (least)   1.00 1.00 1.00
   2   1.45 (1.33 to 1.59) 1.31 (1.19 to 1.44) 1.31 (1.20 to 1.44)
   3   1.89 (1.74 to 2.06) 1.51 (1.36 to 1.68) 1.52 (1.37 to 1.69)
   4   2.45 (2.26 to 2.66) 1.77 (1.58 to 1.99) 1.78 (1.59 to 2.00)
   5 (most)   3.83 (3.53 to 4.15) 2.48 (2.20 to 2.80) 2.48 (2.20 to 2.81)
Smoking rate     
   1 (least)    1.00 1.00
   2    1.23 (1.13 to 1.34) 1.23 (1.14 to 1.34)
   3    1.35 (1.22 to 1.48) 1.35 (1.22 to 1.48)
   4 (most)    1.68 (1.51 to 1.87) 1.66 (1.49 to 1.85)
Air pollution (PM10)     
   1 (least)     1.00
   2     0.97 (0.89 to 1.06)
   3     0.89 (0.81 to 0.98)
   4     0.92 (0.83 to 1.01)
   5 (most)     0.92 (0.84 to 1.01)
  (b) Usable green space
Green space availability quartile     
   1 (least) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   2 1.03 (0.95 to 1.12) 0.95 (0.89 to 1.02) 0.96 (0.90 to 1.03) 0.97 (0.91 to 1.04)
   3 1.09 (1.01 to 1.18) 0.95 (0.89 to 1.02) 0.97 (0.90 to 1.03) 0.97 (0.91 to 1.04)
   4 (most) 1.07 (0.99 to 1.16) 0.94 (0.88 to 1.01) 0.96 (0.90 to 1.03) 0.96 (0.90 to 1.03)
Sex     
   Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Female 0.41 (0.39 to 0.44) 0.40 (0.38 to 0.42) 0.40 (0.39 to 0.42) 0.40 (0.39 to 0.42)
Age group     
   55 to 64 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   45 to 54 0.36 (0.33 to 0.38) 0.35 (0.34 to 0.37) 0.35 (0.34 to 0.37) 0.35 (0.34 to 0.37)
   15 to 44 0.06 (0.06 to 0.07) 0.06 (0.05 to 0.06) 0.06 (0.06 to 0.06) 0.06 (0.06 to 0.06)
Area deprivation (NZDep2001)     
   1 (least)   1.00 1.00 1.00
   2   1.43 (1.31 to 1.56) 1.30 (1.18 to 1.42) 1.31 (1.20 to 1.44)
   3   1.86 (1.72 to 2.02) 1.49 (1.35 to 1.65) 1.53 (1.38 to 1.69)
   4   2.39 (2.21 to 2.59) 1.74 (1.56 to 1.94) 1.79 (1.60 to 2.00)
   5 (most)   3.72 (3.44 to 4.03) 2.42 (2.16 to 2.72) 2.49 (2.22 to 2.81)
Smoking rate     
   1 (least)    1.00 1.00
   2    1.24 (1.14 to 1.35) 1.24 (1.14 to 1.34)
   3    1.37 (1.24 to 1.51) 1.35 (1.22 to 1.48)
   4 (most)    1.71 (1.54 to 1.90) 1.66 (1.49 to 1.85)
Air pollution (PM10)     
   1 (least)     1.00
   2     0.98 (0.90 to 1.06)
   3     0.90 (0.83 to 0.97)
   4     0.92 (0.85 to 1.00)
   5 (most)     0.92 (0.85 to 1.00)
  1. All models adjusted for sex and age-group. Area-level confounders added sequentially in models 2, 3 and 4.