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Table 2 Univariable meta-regression of attitudes towards intimate partner violence using study and country-specific characteristics as explanatory factors

From: Sex disparities in attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa: a socio-ecological analysis

Variable Ratio of OR (95% CI)
Study characteristics  
Calendar year  
   2003 -- 2004 1 (reference)
   2005 -- 2006 1.42 (1.36, 1.49)
   2007 0.62 (0.58, 0.65)
Sample size (per 10,000)  
9000 -- 11000 1 (reference)
11000 -- 15900 0.98 (0.93, 1.03)
>16000 4.15 (3.95, 4.36)
Country-covariates*  
Polygamous (%)  
   Low 1 (reference)
   Average 1.26 (1.20, 1.32)
   High 3.96 (3.77, 4.16)
Gross domestic product per capita  
   Low 1 (reference)
   Average 1.47 (1.40, 1.54)
   High 0.28 (0.27, 0.30)
Adult male literacy rate (%)  
   Low 1 (reference)
   Average 0.30 (0.29, 0.32)
   High 0.17 (0.16, 0.18)
Female adult literacy rate (%)  
   Low 1 (reference)
   Average 0.39 (0.37, 0.40)
   High 0.15 (0.14, 0.16)
Gender development index  
   Low 1 (reference)
   Average 0.22 (0.21, 0.23)
   High 0.17 (0.16, 0.18)
Human development index  
   Low 1 (reference)
   Medium 0.23 (0.22, 0.24)
Region  
   Southern Africa 1 (reference)
   Eastern Africa 0.32 (0.30, 0.33)
   Western Africa 0.10 (0.09, 0.11)
  1. (Source:* authors construct based on data from UNDP statistics)
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